Konstantin Filozof

Disambig.svg Za ostala značenja, v. Konstantin Filozof (razvrstavanje).

Konstantin Filozof (grč. Κωνσταντίνος), posthumno poznat pod monaškim imenom Ćirilo ili Kiril (grč. Κύριλλος, crksl. Кирилъ; 827. — 14. februar 869) je bio veliki slovenski prosvetitelj koji je sa svojim bratom Metodijem doneo pismenost i bogosluženje na maternjem jeziku starim Slovenima.

Sveti Kiril (Ćirilo)
Saint Cyrill statue in Třebíč, Třebíč District.jpg

Statua svetog Ćirila
Rođen 827., Solun
Preminuo 14. februar 869., Rim
Poštuje se u pravoslavlju i katolicizmu
Praznik 11. maj
14. februar
Gloriole.svg Category:Sveci

Konstantin je tvorac prvog slovenskog pisma, glagoljice, kojim su napisani najstariji sačuvani slovenski rukopisi.[1] Glagoljica je u narednim vekovima potisnuta latinicom na zapadu i ćirilicom na istoku. Potonje slovensko pismo, ćirilica, nazvano je u njegovu čast.

Konstantin Filozof je bio jedan od najvećih lingvista, teologa i učenih ljudi svog doba.

ŽivotUredi

Etničko poreklo Konstantina i njegovog brata Metodija je nepoznato, i postoji spor jesu li bili Sloveni[2], vizantijski Grci[3] ili oba.[4]

Konstantin bio veoma nadaren mladić. Po završetku obrazovanja postavljen je za bibliotekara u patrijaršijskoj biblioteci u Carigradu.[5] Tamo je učio filozofiju, i zbog toga ga često nazivan Konstantinom Filozofom. Pokazao je izuzetan jezički talenat, znajući slovenski, grčki, latinski, hebrejski i arapski jezik. Takva jezička veština, zajedno sa njegovom teološkom obukom, učinila ga je pogodnim za misionarski rad.[6]

Misija Arapima i HazarimaUredi

Oko 851. godine, Konstantin je kao izaslanik vizantijskog cara i svog školskog druga Mihajla III bio među Arapima u Samari na Tigru, i među Hazarima zajedno sa bratom. Tokom misije među Hazarima, braća su na Krimu kod Hersona našli mošti pape Klimenta I, kao i evanđelje i psaltir pisane ruskim slovima.[7] Osim prevoda evanđelja i psalmi, na Krimu je sreo i čoveka govori njegov jezik, od kojeg "silu reči primi":

Обрѣтє жє тѹ єваггєлиє и ѱалтыри рѹсьскыми писмєны писано, и чловѣка ѡбрѣтъ глаголюща тою бєсѣдою, и бєсѣдова с нимъ, и силѹ рѣчи прꙇимъ, своєи бєсѣдѣ прикладаа различнаа писмєна, гласнаа съгласнаа, и къ богѹ молитвѹ творѧ, въскорѣ начѧтъ чєсти и сказати, и мноѕи сѧ ємѹ дивлѧхѹ, бога хвалѧщє.

I nađe tamo evanđelje i psaltir ruskim pismenima pisano, i čoveka nađe koji govoraše taj jezik, i besedova s njim, i silu reči primi, svojem jeziku prilagodi različita pismena, glasovima saglasna, i k bogu molitvu učini, brzo poče časti iskazati, i mnogi se njemu divljahu, boga hvališe.[8]

Smatra se da je Konstantin Filozof pronašao model svoje azbuke u „ruskim slovima“ sa kojima se susreo tokom misije na Krimu.[8] No, ostaje nejasno šta su „ruska slova“ tačno značila. U to vreme, reč Rus označavala je prvenstveno nordijske Varjage, a tek potom i istočne Slovene, kojima oni vladahu.[9]

Misija SlovenimaUredi

Glavni članak: Moravska misija
 
Slovenske kneževine na Balkanu, Panoniji i Moraviji u 9. veku.

U vreme dok se Konstantin školovao u Carigradu, slovensko stanovništvo u Moravskoj je bilo pod pritiskom germanizacije.[10] Usled toga, moravski knez Rostislav je 862. ili 863. godine zaiskao od vizantijskog cara Mihaila III „episkopa i učitelja“, rekavši: „Moj narod je odbacio paganstvo i drži se hrišćanskog zakona, ali mi nemamo učitelja koji bi mogao da nam propoveda na našem maternjem jeziku“.[10] Car je brzo odlučio da pošalje Konstantina u pratnji njegovog brata Metodija, obrazlažući odluku rečima:

  „Vas dvojica ste iz Soluna, a svi Solunjani govore čisto slovenski.[10]

Konstantin je odmah sastavio slovensku azbuku i sa bratom započeo prevođenje evanđelja sa grčkog na slovenski jezik.[10] Izgleda da su se u to vreme slovenski dijalekti toliko malo razlikovali, da je mogao da se napravi opšte razumljiv prevod.[10]

Tokom svoje misije među Slovenima u Velikomoravskoj kneževini kneza Rastislava (842—870), braća Kiril i Metodij su se našla na udaru germanskog sveštenstva koje je na tom prostoru širilo hrišćanstvo na latinskom jeziku, zbog čega su oko 867. godine bili primorani da krenu u Rim i traže dozvolu za svoj rad od pape.

Na tom putu su se zaustavili u Panonskoj kneževini kneza Kocelja (861872), započevši misiju i na tim prostoru. Njihovo sedište bilo je u Blatnogradu, novoosnovanoj prestonici Balatonske kneževine, gde su neko vrijeme radili pod pokroviteljstvom kneza Kocelja. Kada su nastavili dalje, pedeset novih učenika im se pridružilo.[10]

Put u Rim i smrtUredi

 
Krštenja češkog kneza Borivoja

Slovenski prosvetitelji su se, na putu ka Rimu, sa učenicima zaustavili u Veneciji, gde je rimsko sveštenstvo ponovo napalo Konstantina tvrdeći da se Bog može slaviti samo na tri „sveta“ jezika: hebrejskom, grčkom i latinskom. Konstantin je, u odgovor, rekao:

„Ne stidite li se pominjati samo tri jezika i zapovedati svim drugim narodima i plemenima da budu slepi i gluvi? Činite li vi Boga nemoćnim, da to ne može dati, ili zavidnim, da ne želi? Znamo za brojne narode koji poseduju pismo i slave Boga, svaki na svom jeziku. Između ostalih: Jermeni, Perzijanci, Abhazi, Iberci, Sogđani, Goti, Avari, Turci, Hazari, Arapi, Egipćani i mnogi drugi.“[10]

Konstantin Filozof

Dok su bili u Veneciji, braća su od pape Nikole I dobila poziv da dođu u Rim.[10] Poziv su prihvatili i u Rim stigli krajem 867. ili početkom 868. godine, gde ih je dočekao Hadrijan II i obavestio da je Nikola preminuo u novembru. Papa je ipak blagoslovio slovensko bogosluženje, a braća Konstantin i Metodij su zajedno sa svojim učenicima zaređeni za svećenike.[10]

Tokom boravka u Rimu, Konstantin se razboleo. Pred smrt se zamonašio uzevši monaško ime Kiril (grč. Κύριλλος) što znači Gospodnji. Pedeset dana kasnije, 14. februara 869, Kiril je preminuo.[10]

NasleđeUredi

Glavni članak: Ćirilo i Metodije
 
Grob sv. Kirila u baziliki sv. Klimenta u Rimu

Kanonizovale su ga i istočna i zapadna hrišćanska crkva, ali ga praznuju različitim datumima, pravoslavna 11. maja (24. maja), a katolička 14. februara. Rusi, Bugari, Makedonci, Ukrajinci, Česi i Slovaci slave dan Svetih Ćirila i Metodija kao kulturni Dan slovenske pismenosti i kulture.[11]

Zajedno sa bratom, 1980. godine je proglašen svecem zaštitnikom Evrope. Po njemu je nazvan, oko 1.505 m nadmorske visine visok planinski vrh na ostrvu Livingston, koje se nalazi u arhipelagu Južnih Šetlandskih ostrva na Antarktiku.

ReferenceUredi

  1. Texas University
    • 1. Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore Rabb, Isser Woloch, Raymond Grew. The Western Experience with Powerweb. Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education 2002. University of Michigan. p. 214. ISBN 9780072565447
    ...Two Christian brothers of Slavic descent, Cyril and Methodius, set out in about 862 as missionaries from the Byzantine...
    • 2. Balkan Studies, Volume 22. Hidryma Meletōn Chersonēsou tou Haimou (Thessalonikē, Greece). The Institute, 1981. Original from the University of Michigan. p. 381
    ...Being of Slavic descent, both of them spoke the old Slavic language fluently...
    • 3. Loring M. Danforth. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton University Press, 1995. p. 49 ISBN 9780691043562.
    ...In the ninth century two brothers Cyril and Methodius, Macedonian educators of Slavic origin from Solun, brought literacy and Christianity to the Slavs...
    • 4. Ihor Ševčenko. Byzantium and the Slavs: In Letters and Culture'. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1991. p. 481. ISBN 9780916458126
    ...63-68 (Cyril and Methodius were Slavs)...There remains that argument for Cyril's and Methodius' Slavic origin which has to do with the Slavic translation of the Gospels and...
    • 5. Roland Herbert Bainton. Christianity: An American Heritage Book Series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. p. 156. ISBN 9780618056873
    ...Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
    • 6. John Shea. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation. McFarland, 1997. p. 56 . ISBN 9780786437672
    ...Byzantine emperor Michael, on the request of the Moravian prince Ratislav, decided to send Slav priests as educators, he chose the Salonika brothers Cyril and Methodius...
    • 7. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1984. University of Michigan
    ...They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
    • 8. The Pakistan Review, Volume 19. Ferozsons Limited, 1971. University of California. p. 41
    ...century in Salonika, then one of the largest towns in the Byzantine Empire. The brothers were of Slav origin...
    • 9. Balkania, Volume 7. Balkania Publishing Company, 1973. Indiana University. p. 10
    ...Cyril and Methodius not only lived among Slavs. ...of Slavonic, which they not only spoke and understood, but in which they also wrote—translated and composed—and for which they invented an alphabet, is proof of their Slav origin...
    • 10. Bryce Dale Lyon, Herbert Harvey Rowen, Theodore S. Hamerow. A History of the Western World, Volume 1. Rand McNally College Pub. Co., 1974. Northwestern University. p. 239
    ...brothers of Slavic origin, Cyril and Methodius, who, after being ordained at Constantinople, preached the Gospel to the Slavs...
    • 11. Roland Herbert Bainton. The history of Christianity. Nelson, 1964. p. 169
    ...Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
    • 12. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason. Encyclopedia of European Peoples: Facts on File library of world history. Infobase Publishing, 2006. p. 752. ISBN 9781438129181
    ...There is disagreement as to whether Cyril and his brother Methodius were Greek or Slavic, but they knew the Slavic dialect spoken in Macedonia...
    • 13. Frank Andrews. Ancient Slavs'. Worzalla Publishing Company, 1976. University of Wisconsin - Madison. p. 163.
    ...Cyril and Methodius derived from a rich family of Salonica, perhaps of Slavic origin, but Grecized in those times. Methodius (815–885)...
    • 14. Johann Heinrich Kurtz, John Macpherson. Church History. Hodder and Stoughton, 1891. University of California. p. 431
    ...Born at Thessalonica, and so probably of Slavic descent, at least acquainted with the language of the Slavs,...
    • 15. William Leslie King. Investment and Achievement: A Study in Christian Progress. Jennings and Graham, 1913. Columbia University.
    ...This man and his brother Cyril became the Methodius and Cyril apostles of the Slavic people. These two brothers seemed to have been raised up for such a mission. They were probably of Slavic descent...
    • Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" "Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature."
    • Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessalonica who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity.
    • Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"
    • Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997
    • Lunt, Slavic Review, June 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98
    • V.Bogdanovich, History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119
    • Hastings, Adrian (1997). The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. str. 126. ISBN 0-521-62544-0. "The activity of the brothers Constantine (later renamed Cyril) and Methodius, aristocratic Greek priests who were sent from Constantinople." 
    • Fletcher, R. A. (1999). The barbarian conversion: from paganism to Christianity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. str. 327. ISBN 0-520-21859-0. 
    • Cizevskij, Dmitrij; Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Porter, Richard E.. Comparative History of Slavic Literatures. Vanderbilt University Press. str. vi. ISBN 0-8265-1371-9. "Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine who later became a monk and took the name Cyril and Methodius." 
    • The illustrated guide to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. str. 14. ISBN 0-19-521462-5. "In Eastern Europe, the first translations of the Bible into the Slavonic languages were made by the Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 860s" 
    • Smalley, William Allen (1991). Translation as mission: Bible translation in the modern missionary movement. Macon, Ga.: Mercer. str. 25. ISBN 978-0-86554-389-8. "The most important instance where translation and the beginning church did coincide closely was in Slavonic under the brothers Cyril and Methodius, with the Bible completed by A.D. 880. This was a missionary translation but unusual again (from a modern point of view) because not a translation into the dialect spoken where the missionaries were. The brothers were Greeks who had been brought up in Macedonia." 
    • 1. Philip Lief Group. Saintly Support: A Prayer For Every Problem. Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2003. p. 37. ISBN 9780740733369
    ...Cyril was born of Greek nobility connected with the senate of Thessalonica, although his mother may have been of Slavic descent...
    • 2. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization., 1984. University of Michigan
    ...They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
  2. https://lrc.la.utexas.edu/eieol/ocsol/20
  3. https://lrc.la.utexas.edu/eieol/ocsol/20
  4. Svetozar Nikolić, Staroslovenski jezik I, „Trebnik“, Beograd, 2002.
  5. 8,0 8,1 Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum
  6. Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum
  7. 10,0 10,1 10,2 10,3 10,4 10,5 10,6 10,7 10,8 10,9 Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum
  8. Ćirilo i Metodije

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