Ratni zarobljenici

(Preusmjereno sa Ratni zarobljenik)

Ratni zarobljenik je lice koga su neprijateljske snage zarobile tokom ili nakon oružanog konflikta.

Austrougarski ratni zarobljenici u Rusiji 1915.

Jedna od osnovnih karakteristika boračkog statusa je da ukoliko borci padnu pod vlast neprijatelja oni dobijaju status ratnih zarobljenika.

Pored boraca, Trećom Ženevskom konvencijom status ratnih zarobljenika u slučaju zarobljavanja priznat je civilima koji prate oružane snage iako neposredno ne ulaze u njihov sastav, kao i članovima posada trgovačke mornarice i civilnog vazduhoplovstva strana u sukobu ukoliko u konkretnom slučaju po međunarodnom pravu ne uživaju povoljniji tretman. Reč je o istom krugu lica kojima je priznat status ranjenika, bolesnika i brodolomnika.

Pored ovih lica status ratnih zarobljenika imaju i pripadnici oružanih snaga okupiranih zemalja ukoliko okupator odluči da pristupi njihovom imterniranju kao i sva lica kojima je priznat ovaj status koja su na svoju teritoriju primile neutralne i nezaraćene sile pod uslovom da im ne bude priznat povoljniji položaj.

Postoje i lica kojima, iako ulaze u sastav oružanih snaga jedne od zaraćenih strana, ni u slučaju zarobljavanja, neće biti priznat status ratnih zarobljenika. Reč je o plaćenicima i špijunima.

Pod plaćenicima se podrazumevaju pre svega lica koja u neprijateljstvima učestvuju prevashodno motivisana ličnom korišću, koja nisu državljani strane u sukobu i koja su uglavnom regrutovana u inostranstvu. Špijunima se smatraju pripadnici oružanih snaga strane u sukobu ukoliko su uhvaćeni u špijunaži i nalaze se u vlasti protivničke strane. Pri tome, na osnovu tradicionalnog koncepta pravi se razlika između lica koja su se bavila špijunažom u uniformi svojih oružanih snaga ili bez nje, tako da se uniformisani obaveštajci za razliku od ovih drugih, neće smatrati špijunima.

Svrha interniranja ratnih zarobljenika nije njihovo kažnjavanje, imajući u vidu da oni ne mogu da odgovaraju za učestvovanje u neprijateljstvima već sprečavanje njihovog daljeg učestvovanja u borbi. Saglasno toma odredbe koje se tiču njihovog položaja predstavljaju kompromis između interesa sile u čijoj se vlasti nalaze, interesa sile kojoj zarobljenici pripadaju i interesa samih ratnih zarobljenika.

Pored opšteg nivoa zaštite koji je priznat i ostalim kategorijama zaštićenih lica a koja podrazumeva obavezu poštovanja fizičkog i psihičkog integriteta, ratni zarobljenici saglasno svom specifičnom statusu uživaju i dodatna prava. Tako na primer oni ne smeju biti prinudno ispitivani, niti se prema njima sme primeniti bilo koja metoda radi dobijanja informacija. Sila koja ih drži u zarobljeništvu mora obezbediti adekvatne uslove za njihov smeštaj, ishranu i odevanje, i ovi uslovi ne smeju biti nepovoljniji od uslova obezbeđenim sopstvenim jedinicama na tim mestima. U slučaju pokušaja bekstva, ratni zarobljenici mogu biti samo disciplinski kažnjeni dok im za krivična dela izvršena dok su pod ovim statusom mora biti obezbeđen pravičan i nepristrasan sudski postupak.

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    • John L. Borling – a collection of his poetry Taps on the Walls: Poems from the Hanoi Hilton 2013 ISBN 9780615659053
    • Donald E. Casey – To Fight For My Country, Sir!: Memoirs of a 19 year old B-17 Navigator Shot Down in Nazi Germany 2009 ISBN 9781448669875

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