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{{renesansa}}
The '''RenaissanceRenesansa inu PolandPoljskoj''' ({{lang-pl|Renesans, Odrodzenie}}; literallydoslovno: the Rebirthpreporod) lastedtrajala fromje theod latekasnog 15th15. todo thekasnog late16. 16thvijeka centuryi andnaširoko isse widely considered to have been thesmatra [[Polishzlatno Goldendoba AgePoljske|Goldenzlatnim Agedobom]] of [[Polishkultura culturePoljske|poljske kulture]]. RuledPod by thevladavinom [[Jagiellonian dynasty]], the [[Crown of the Kingdom of Poland]] (fromod 1569. part of thedio [[Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth]]) activelyaktivno participatedje insudjelovala theu broadširokoj Europeanevropskoj [[Renaissancerenesansa|renesansi]]. TheVišenacionalna multi-nationalpoljska Polishdržava stateprošla experiencedje akroz period ofkulturološkog culturalrasta growthdijelom thankszahvaljujući invijeku partbez tovelikih aratova century- withoutpored majorsukoba warsu slabo asidenaseljenim fromistočnim conflictsi injužnim the sparsely populated eastern and southerngraničnim borderlandspodručjima. The [[Protestant Reformation|ReformationReformacija]] spreadse peacefullyproširila throughoutdržavom themirno countryi (givingdovela risedo to thenasanka [[Polish Brethren]]), whiledok livingsu conditionsse improved,uslovi citiesživota grewpoboljšali, andgradovi exportsrasli ofi agriculturalizvoz productspoljoprivrednih enrichedproizvoda theobogatio populationpopulaciju, especiallynaročito the nobilityvlastelu (''[[szlachta]]'') whokoja gainedje dominancedominirala innovim thepolitičkim new political system ofsistemom [[Golden Liberty]].
 
== OverviewPregled ==
The [[RenaissanceRenesansa|Renesansni]] movementpokret, whosečiji influenceje originatedutjecaj inpotekao iz [[Italyitalija|Italije]], spreadproširio throughoutse PolandPoljskom roughlyotprilike inu the15. 15thi and 16th16. centuryvijeku. ManyMnogi Italiantalijanski artistsumjetnici arriveddošli insu theu countrytu welcomeddržavu byuz Polishdobrodošlicu royaltypoljskih plemića, includingmeđu kojima su bili [[Francesco Fiorentino]], [[Bartholommeo Berecci]], [[Santi Gucci]], [[Mateo Gucci]], [[Bernardo Morando]], [[Giovanni Battista di Quadro]] andi othersostali, includingkao thinkersi andmislioci educatorsi suchučitelji aspoput [[Filip Callimachus|Filipa Callimachusa]], merchantstrgovci suchpoput as theporodica Boner family and thei Montelupi family,<ref>{{cite web |url = http://encyklopedia.interia.pl/haslo?hid=88093|title = Montelupi |work = encyklopedia.interia.pl |publisher = |pages = |page = |date = |accessdate = 2010-08-14|language=pl}}</ref> te andostale otheristaknute prominentličnosti personalitieskoje whosu immigratedse todoselile Polandu sincePoljsku theod latekasnog 15th15. centuryvijeka inu searchpotrazi ofza newnovim opportunitiesprilikama. MostVećina ofih themse settlednaselila inu [[Kraków]]u, theglavnim Polishgradom capitalPoljske untildo 1611. godine.
[[File:Jan Kochanowski with Ursula.png|thumb|upright|left|[[Jan Kochanowski]], pjesnik i pisac proze, sa svojom voljenom kćerkom]]
 
TheRenesansne Renaissancevrijednosti valuesplemenitosti ofčovjeka thei dignity of man and power ofmoći hisnjegovog reasonrazuma werepodržane applaudedsu inu PolandPoljskoj.<ref name=mik_cul>[[Michael J. Mikoś]], ''Polish Renaissance Literature: An Anthology''. Ed. Michael J. Mikoś. Columbus, Ohio/Bloomington, Indiana: Slavica Publishers. 1995. {{ISBN|978-0-89357-257-0}} [http://staropolska.pl/ang/renaissance/Mikos_renaissance/Cultural_r.html Cultural Background]</ref> ManyMnoga worksdjela wereprevođena translatedsu intona Polishpoljski andi Latinlatinski fromsa classicalklasičnog [[Latinlatinski jezik|latinskog]], [[Greekgrčki languagejezik|Greekgrčkog]] andi [[Hebrewhebrejski jezik|hebrejskog]], askao welli assavremenih contemporaryjezika languages likepoput [[Italianitalijanski languagejezik|Italianitalijanskog]].<ref name=mik_cul/> The [[Cracow Academy]], onejedan ofod thenajstarijih world'suniverziteta oldestna universitiessvijetu, enjoyedprošao itsje Goldenkroz Erasvoje betweenzlatno doba između 1500. andi 1535, with. 3godine,215 studentssa graduating3215 instudenata thekoji firstsu decadediplomirali ofu theprvoj 16thdeceniji 16. centuryvijekaarekord recordkoji notnije surpassedprevaziđen untildo thekasnog late 18th18. centuryvijeka.<ref name=mik_cul/> ThePeriod periodpoljske ofrenesanse, Polishu Renaissance,kojem supportivesu ofintelektualne intellectualtežnje pursuitspodržavane, producedstvorio je manymnoge outstandingizvanredne artistsumjetnike andi scientistsnaučnike. AmongMeđu themnjima werebili su [[NicolausNikola CopernicusKopernik]], whokoji inje hisu svojem djelu ''[[De revolutionibus orbium coelestium]]'' presented thepredstavio [[heliocentrismheliocentrizam|heliocentricheliocentričku]] theoryteoriju of the universesvemira, [[Maciej of Miechów]], author ofautor ''Tractatus de duabus Sarmatis...'' – thedo mosttada accurate up to datenajtačnijeg [[geographygeografija|geographicalgeografskog]] andi [[ethnographyetnografija|ethnographicaletnografskog]] account ofprikaza [[EasternIstočna Evropa|Istočne EuropeEvrope]]; [[Bernard Wapowski]], a [[cartographerkartografija|kartograf]] whosečije mapssu ofse thatkarte regionte appearedregije inpojavile u [[PtolemyPtolomej]]'sevoj ''[[Geography (Ptolemy)|GeographyGeografiji]]''; [[Marcin Kromer]] whokoji inje hisu ''De origine et rebus gestis Polonorum libri...'' describedopisao both thei [[history ofhistorija PolandPoljske|historyhistoriju]] andi [[geographygeografija ofPoljske|geografiju PolandPoljske]]; [[Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski]], afilozof philosopherkoji concerned withbavio [[governance]]; [[Mikołaj Rej]] whokoji hasje popularizedpopularizirao the use ofupotrebu [[Polishpoljski jezik|poljskog languagejezika]] inu poetrypoeziji; andi [[Jan Kochanowski]], whosečije poemssu inga Polishpjesme languagena elevatedpoljskom himjeziku to the ranks ofuzdigle theu mostrang prominentnajistaknutijih [[Slavsslaveni|Slavicslavenskih]] poetspjesnika.<ref name=mik_cul/><ref name=mik_lit>[[Michael J. Mikoś]], ''Polish Renaissance Literature: An Anthology''. Ed. Michael J. Mikoś. Columbus, Ohio/Bloomington, Indiana: Slavica Publishers. 1995. {{ISBN|978-0-89357-257-0}} [http://staropolska.pl/ang/renaissance/Mikos_renaissance/Literary_r.html Literary Background]</ref>
[[File:De revolutionibus orbium coelestium.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Nikola Kopernik|Kopernik]]' ''[[De revolutionibus orbium coelestium]]'']]
 
YoungMladi PolesPoljaci, especiallynaročito sonsvlastelinski of nobilitysinovi ([[szlachta]]), whokoji graduatedsu fromdiplomirali anyna onebilo ofkojoj overod 2,500preko 2500 [[parish]] schoolsškola, [[gymnasium (school)|gymnasiumsgimnazija]] andi severalnekoliko academiesakademija ([[Cracow Academy]], [[Wilno Academy]], [[Zamość Academy]]), oftenčesto traveledsu abroadputovali tou inostranstvo kako bi completezavršili theirsvoje educationobrazovanje.<ref name=mik_cul/> PolishPoljski thinkersmislioci, likekao što su Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski, [[Johannes Dantiscus]] orili [[Jan Łaski]], maintainedodržavali contactssu withkontakt leadingsa Europeanvodećim philosophersevropskim of thefilozofima Renaissancerenesanse, such aspoput [[Thomas More|Thomasa Morea]], [[ErasmusErazmo Roterdamski|Erazmom]] andi [[Philip Melanchthon|Philipom Melanchthonom]].<ref name=mik_cul/> PolandPoljska notnije onlysamo partooksudjelovala inu therazmjeni exchangeglavnih ofkulturoloških majori culturalnaučnih andideja scientifici ideasrazvoja andZapadne developmentsEvrope, ofveć Westernje Europe,i but also spreadproširila [[Westernzapadna culturekultura|WesternZapadno heritagenaslijeđe]] eastwardsistočno amongmeđu [[East Slavic peoples|East Slavicistočnoslavenskim]] nationsnacijama.<ref name=mik_cul/><ref>{{cite book |author=Stephen J. Lee|title=Peter the Great |year=1993 |page=65|pages= |chapter=|chapterurl= |publisher=Routledge |location= |isbn=0-415-09279-5|url=|format= |accessdate=}}</ref> ForNa exampleprimjer, proces [[printingštampanje|štampanja]] process, [[Latinlatinski languagejezik]] andi artumjetnost withsa theslogovnim syllabicpjesništvom versification inu [[poetrypoezija|poeziji]],<ref name=mik_cul/><ref>{{cite book |author=Nicholas Rzhevsky|title=The Cambridge Companion to modern Russian culture|year=1998 |page=34|pages= |chapter=|chapterurl= |publisher=Cambridge University Press|location= |isbn=0-521-47799-9|url=|format= |accessdate=}}</ref><ref>{{cite book |author=Elaine Rusinko|title=Straddling borders: literature and identity in Subcarpathian Rus|year=2003|page=74|pages= |chapter=|chapterurl= |publisher=University of Toronto Press|location= |isbn=0-8020-3711-9|url=|format= |accessdate=}}</ref> especiallynaročito inu [[Belarusbjelorusija|Bjelorusiji]] andi [[Ukraineukrajina|Ukrajini]] (throughkroz [[Kyiv-Mohyla Academy]]),<ref>{{cite book |author1=Aleksandr Kamenskiĭ |author2=David Mark Griffiths |title=36|year=1997|editor=David Mark Griffiths |page=36|pages= |chapter=|chapterurl= |publisher=M.E. Sharpe|location= |isbn=1-56324-575-2|url=|format= |accessdate=}}</ref> fromodakle wherese itprenosila was transmitted tou [[Russiarusija|Rusiju]] ([[Duchy of Moscow]]),<ref name=mik_cul/> whichkoja beganje topočela increasepovećavati itssvoje tiesveze withsa westernzapadnom EuropeEvropom inkao the aftermath of theposljedica [[Mongol invasion of Rus]].<ref>{{cite web|author = Gerhard Rempel|url = http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/russia/lectures/07tartar.html|title = The Tartar yoke|work = mars.wnec.edu|publisher = |pages = |page = |date = |accessdate = 2010-08-14|deadurl = yes|archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20070930230346/http://mars.wnec.edu/~grempel/courses/russia/lectures/07tartar.html|archivedate = 2007-09-30|df = }}</ref> ThePrve firstčetiri four printedštampane [[Cyrillicćirilica|ćirilične]] booksknjige inna thesvijetu worldobjavljene weresu publishedu in Kraków, inKrakówu 1491,. byod printerstrane SzwajpoltSzwajpolta FiolFiola.<ref name=mik_lit/>
[[File:Stanisław Samostrzelnik, Św Stanisław.jpg|thumb|upright|left|Kralj [[Sigismund I the Old]] i biskup Piotr Tomicki kleče ispred [[Stanislaus of Szczepanów|SV. Stanisława]], lisna forma ''Sata Sigismunda I'', [[Stanisław Samostrzelnik]], 1535.]]