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Kao pionir [[doba velikih geografskih otkrića]], Portugal je procvjetao u 15., 16. i 17. vijeku, sa putovanjima u Indiju, Orijent, Amerike i Afriku. Ta ogromna trgovačka mreža stvorila je izuzetno bogatu [[portugalska vlastela|portugalsku vlastelu]] i monarhiju, koji su postali pokrovitelji izuzetnog procvata kulture, umjetnosti i tehnologije u Portugalu i širom svijeta.
 
== ContextKontekst ==
[[File:Portugal Império total.png|thumb|left|290px|TheProstranstvo vastnessi andraznolikost diversity[[portugalsko ofkolonijalno thecarstvo|Portugalskog [[Portuguesekolonijalnog Empirecarstva]] was abio keyje factorključan behindfaktor theiza Portugueseportugalske Renaissancerenesanse.]]
Portugal je tokom renesanse privlačio diplomate, trgovce, studente, humaniste, učenjake i umjetnike iz čitave Evrope. Pomorska trgovina u [[doba velikih geografskih otkrića]] igrala je odlučujuću ulogu u razvoju portugalske renesanse. Trgovina je pojačala kontakt sa važnim centrima [[talijanska renesansa|talijanske renesanse]] i omogućila joj je novu komercijalnu buržoaziju da se obogati i ima suvišak novca kako bi postala pokrovitelj portugalske renesanse, slično kao i kod drugih evropskih renesansi.{{Cn|date=February 2017}}
Diplomats, merchants, students, humanists, scholars, and artists, from all over Europe, were drawn to Portugal during its Renaissance. The maritime trade of the [[Age of Discovery]] played a decisive role in the evolution of the Portuguese Renaissance. Trade intensified contacts with important centers of the [[Italian Renaissance]] and it allowed a new commercial bourgeoisie to prosper and have excess funds to become patrons of the Portuguese Renaissance, much like the other Renaissances of Europe.{{Cn|date=February 2017}}
 
Otkriće novih svjetova i kontakt sa drugim civilizacijama doveo je do miješanja kultura, što se odrazilo na umjetnost i književnost portugalske renesanse. Kontakt sa civilizacijama Afrike i Istoka doveo je do uvoza brojnih keramičkih predmeta, tekstila i namještaja, skupocjenog drveta, slonovače i svila, što je opet dovelo do pojave novih oblika umjetnosti i kulturološke razmjene između Evrope i Istočne Afrike, kroz Portugal. Nova trgovina predmetima sa novootkrivenim zemljama također je ono što je dozvolilo finansiranje portugalske renesanse, stvorivši bogatu [[portugalska vlastela|portugalsku vlastelinsku]] i trgovačku klasu.
The discovery of new worlds and contact with other civilizations led to a cultural mix, which was reflected in the arts and literature of the Portuguese Renaissance. The contact with the civilizations of Africa and the East led to the importation of numerous objects of ceramics, textiles and furniture, precious woods, ivory and silk, in turn, led to the emergence of new artistic forms resulting cultural exchanges between Europe, and East Africa, through the Portuguese. The new trade of items with the newly discovered lands is also what allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be funded, by creating a wealthy [[Portuguese nobility]] and merchant class.
 
Portugalske veze, putem ogromnog [[portugalsko kolonijalno carstvo|Portugalskog Carstva]], sa čitavim svijetom razmjene, kulture i trgovine, od [[Japan]]a do [[Brazil]]a i od [[Azori|Azora]] do [[Goa|Goe]], bile su te koje su omogućile rađanje portugalske renesanse. Jedinstvena sposobnost te države da stupi u interakciju i kolonizira druge narode (kasnije zvana [[luzotropikalizam]]), omogućila joj je finansiranje vlastite bogate renesanse, u umjetnosti, humanistici, religiji i nauci, ne samo u svom centralnom dijelu, već i širom svog carstva, zbog posebne poveznice koju je portugalsko kolonijalno crstvo imalo sa Portugalom Portugal.
It was Portugal's connection, through the vast [[Portuguese Empire]], to a full world of trade, culture, and commerce, from [[Japan]] to [[Brazil]] and from the [[Azores]] to [[Goa]], that allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be born. Portugal's unique ability to interact and colonize other peoples (later called [[Lusotropicalism]]), allowed it fund a flourishing Renaissance of its own, of arts, humanities, religion, and sciences alike, not just in its mainland, but throughout its empire, due to the special link that the Portuguese Empire had to Portugal.
 
== ArtsUmjetnost ==
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[[File:Torre Belém April 2009-4a.jpg|thumb|right|Francisco[[Torre de Arruda's [[Belém Tower]] isFrancisca one ofde theArrude mostjedno emblematicje architecturalod piecesnajemblematičnijih ofarhitektonskih thedjela Portugueseportugalske Renaissancereneanse.]]
=== Architecture ===
{{main|Renaissance architecture in Portugal}}
In terms of architecture, much like many sections of the arts, the Portuguese Renaissance did not, for the most and initial part, follow the paths of the other Renaissances, which heavily focused on the sophistication and simplicity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. For the larger part of the Portuguese Renaissance, its architecture was largely the continuation and elaboration of the [[Gothic style]].
 
=== Arhitektura ===
The profits of the spice trade, during the reigns of [[John II of Portugal|John II]], [[Manuel I of Portugal|Manuel I]], and [[John III of Portugal|John III]], financed the sumptuous and dominant style of the Portuguese Renaissance, the [[Manueline]] style.<ref name="Bergin">{{cite book|last= Bergin|first= Thomas Goddard, Jennifer Speake|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=VOb4hIp7EE8C&lpg=PP1&dq=Encyclopedia%20of%20the%20Renaissance%20and%20the%20Reformation%20%20By%20Thomas%20Goddard%20Bergin&pg=PP1|title= Encyclopedia of the Renaissance and the Reformation|origyear= |year= 2004|publisher= Infobase Publishing|location= London|isbn= 0816054517|page= }}</ref> The Manueline was largely an intricate and complex style, with heavy gothic and light neo-classical influence, that was unique to Portugal.
{{main|Renesansna arhitektura u Portugalu}}
U pogledu arhitekture, slično kao i u mnogim dijelovima umjetnosti, Portugalsko carstvo u početku i većinom nije slijedilo puteve ostalih renesansi, koje su se jako fokusirale na sofisticiranost i jednostavnost antičke Grčke i Rima. Veći dio portugalske renesanse, njena arhitektura većinom je bila nastavak i razrada [[Gothic style]].
 
TheProfit profitsod of the spicetrgovine tradezačinima, duringtokom the reigns ofvladavine [[John II of Portugal|JohnJohna II]], [[Manuel I of Portugal|ManuelManuela I]], andi [[John III of Portugal|JohnJohna III]], financedfinansirao theje sumptuousraskošan andi dominantdominantan stylestil ofportugalske the Portuguese Renaissancerenesanse, the [[Manueline]] stylestil.<ref name="Bergin">{{cite book|last= Bergin|first= Thomas Goddard, Jennifer Speake|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=VOb4hIp7EE8C&lpg=PP1&dq=Encyclopedia%20of%20the%20Renaissance%20and%20the%20Reformation%20%20By%20Thomas%20Goddard%20Bergin&pg=PP1|title= Encyclopedia of the Renaissance and the Reformation|origyear= |year= 2004|publisher= Infobase Publishing|location= London|isbn= 0816054517|page= }}</ref> TheManuelinski Manuelinestil wasje largelybio anvećinom intricateintrikatan andi complexsložen stylestil, withsa heavyjakim gothicgotičkim andi lightneoklasički neo-classical influenceutjecajem, thatkoji je wasbio uniquejedinstven toza Portugal.
The first known building to be done in Manueline style is the [[Monastery of Jesus of Setubal]], by the architect [[Diogo de Boitaca]], one of the originators and masters of the style. The nave of the monastery's church, supported by spiral columns, reveals the attempt to [[Hall church|unify and make equal of the church]], a style which reaches its climax in the church of [[Jerónimos Monastery]], completed in 1520 by architect [[João de Castilho]]. Francisco de Arruda's [[Belém Tower]] and chapter window of the [[Convent of Christ (Tomar)|Convent of the Order of Christ]], in [[Tomar]], are some of the most famous examples of the Manueline style, and Portuguese Renaissance architecture in a whole.
 
Prva poznata građevina urađena u manuelinskom stilu je [[Monastery of Jesus of Setubal]], kojeg je osmislio [[Diogo de Boitaca]], jedan od izvornika i majstora tog stila. Brod manastirske crkve, podržan spiralnim stupovima, otkriva pokušaj [[Hall church|ujedinjenja i izjednačavanja crkve]], stil koji je dostigao svoj vrhunac u crkvi [[Jerónimos Monastery]], završenog 1520. od strane arhitekte [[João de Castilho]]. [[Torra de Belém Tower]] Francisca de Arrude i prozor [[Convent of Christ (Tomar)|Manastira Hristovog Reda]] u [[Tomar]]u, su neki od najpoznatijih primjera manuelinskog stila i portugalske renesansne arhitekture kao cjeline.
 
Austere Renaissance classicism did not flourish much in the Portuguese Renaissance, but slowly established itself from the 1530s and onward, with the help of both foreigners and nationals, like [[Francisco de Holanda]] and Diogo de Torralva. The [[Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Tomar)|Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição]], in Tomar, by Diogo de Torralva, is an excellent examples of the pure Renaissance classical architecture from the Portuguese Renaissance. Some examples of the strong and pure classical Renaissance are Miguel de Arruda's [[Igreja da Graça (Évora)|Igreja da Graça]], in [[Évora]], [[Diogo de Arruda]]'s [[Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa]], in [[Vila Viçosa]], and the Cloister of King D. John III, at the Convent of the Order of Christ, by Diogo de Torralva and [[Filippo Terzi]], considered one of the most emblematic pieces of the Portuguese Renaissance. The Quinta da Bacalhoa and the [[Casa dos Bicos]] are good examples of strong classical Renaissance style palaces, which still hold Manueline tendencies.