Siward od Northumbrije

Siward ili Sigurd (staroengleski: Sigeweard)[1] bio je važni earl (feudalni velmoža) u Engleskoj sredinom 11. vijeka. U tadašnjim historijskim izvorima se za njega koristi staronordijski nadimak Digri i latinski prijevod Grossus ("Gordi").[2] Vjeruje se kako je Siward bio skandinavskog porijekla, vjerojatno rodbinski povezan sa Earlom Ulfom, te postao važan regionalni velikaš za vrijeme vladavine dansko-engleskog kralja Knuta (1016–1035). Vjeruje se kako je došao iz Skandinavije te postepeno postao gospodar najvećeg dijela sjeverne Engleske. Najkasnije od 1033. Siward je kontrolirao južnu Northumbriju (današnji Yorkshire) i vladao u Knutovo ime.

Siward
Earl of Northumbria
Detalj slike Death of Earl Siward (James Smetham, 1861)
Vladavina 1041–55
Sigvarðr Diger
Titule također earl u Yorku od 1023x33
Rođen/a nepoznato
Skandinavija
Umro/la 1055
Sahranjen/a crkva St Olaf u Yorku
Prethodnik Erik od Hlathira (za York)
Eadulf (za Bamburgh)
Uhtred Odvažni (za oboje)
Nasljednik Tostig Godwinson
Supruga/supruge Ælfflæd
Godgifu
Otac Bjorn (?)
Majka nepoznato

Svoj je položaj ojačao oženivši se za Ælfflæd, kćer Ealdreda, earla od Bamburgha. Nakon što je 1041. likvidirao Ealdredovog nasljednika Eadulfa stekao je kontrolu nad cijelom Northumbrijom. Svoju je vlast dodatno proširio pod Knutovim nasljednicima - kraljevima Hartkanutom i Edwardom - pružajući im vojnu pomoć i služeći kao savjetnik. Vjeruje se kako je 1050-ih stekao vlast nad pokrajinama Northampton i Huntingdon, a postoje indicije da se northumbrijska vlast proširila na Cumberland. Početkom 1050-ih se earl Siward okrenuo na sjever, protiv škotskog vladara Mac Bethad mac Findlaícha ("Macbeth"). Iako je u tom pohodu poginuo Siwardov sin Osbjorn, Siward je uspio poraziti Mac Bethada u bitci 1054. Ti su događaji više od pola milenijuma kasnije ovjekovečeni kao dio zapleta znamenite Shakespearove tragedije Macbeth. Siward je umro godine 1055. ostavivši sina Waltheofa, koji će kasnije također postati gospodar Northumbrije. Crkva St Olaf's u Yorku i obližnje brdo Heslington Hill se danas tradicionalno povezuju sa Siwardom.

Izvori

uredi
  1. Englesko ime Siward ili Sigeweard je bilo ekvivalent staronordijskog imena koje se pisalo kao Sigvarðr i Sigurðr; see Holman, Northern Conquest, p. 103; Munch (ed.), Chronica regum Manniae et Insularum, vol. i, p. 140; Stevenson, Simeon of Durham, p. 119
  2. Barlow (ed.), Life of King Edward, p. 35 (= Vita Ædwardi, i. 3); Aird, "Siward"; see also reference in on the Vita Waldevi below

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