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'''Također uraditi:''' Renaissance in the Low Countries, Renaissance in Poland, Portuguese Renaissance, Mid-Tudor Crisis, 19th-century London, History of London (1900–39)
 
{{renesansa}}
The '''Portuguese Renaissance''' refers to the cultural and artistic movement in [[Portugal]] during the 15th and 16th centuries. Though the movement coincided with the [[Spanish Renaissance|Spanish]] and [[Italian Renaissance]]s, the Portuguese Renaissance was largely separate from other European Renaissances and instead was incredibly important in opening Europe to the unknown and bringing a more worldly view to those European Renaissances, as at the time the [[Portuguese Empire]] spanned the globe.<ref>University, Brown, The John Carter Brown Library. "Portuguese Overseas Travels and European Readers". Portugal and Renaissance Europe. JCB Exhibitions. Retrieved 19 July 2011.</ref>
'''Renesansa u Nizozemskim''' bila je kulturološki period [[sjevernoevropska renesansa|sjeverne renesanse]] koji se desio oko 16. vijeka u [[nizozemske|Nizozemskim]] (današnja [[Belgija]], [[Nizozemska]] i [[Francuska Flandrija]]).
 
As the pioneer of the [[Age of Discoveries]], Portugal flourished in the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, with voyages to India, the Orient, the Americas, and Africa. This immense trade network would create an incredibly wealthy [[Portuguese nobility]] and monarchy, that would become patrons for an incredible flourishing of culture, arts, and technology in Portugal and all over the world.
Kultura u Nizozemskim pri kraju 15. vijeka bila je pod utjecajem [[talijanska renesansa|talijanske renesanse]], putem trgovine kroz [[Bruges]] kojom se Flandrija obogatila. Njezina vlastela naručivala je umjetnike koji su postali poznati u čitavoj Evropi. U nauci je predvodio [[anatomija|anatom]] [[Andreas Vesalius]]; u [[kartografija|kartografiji]], karte [[Gerardus Mercator|Gerardusa Mercatora]] pomagale su istraživačima i navigatorima. U umjetnosti, [[holandsko i flamansko renesansno slikarstvo]] obuhvatalo je sve od neobičnih djela [[Hieronymus Bosch|Hieronymusa Boscha]] do prikaza svakodnevnog života [[Pieter Breughel Stariji|Pietera Brueghela Starijeg]]. U arhitekturi, muzici i književnosti kultura Nizozemskih je također prešla u renesansni stil.
 
== Context ==
== Geopolitička situacija i pozadina ==
[[File:Portugal Império total.png|thumb|left|290px|The vastness and diversity of the [[Portuguese Empire]] was a key factor behind the Portuguese Renaissance.]]
[[File:The Low Countries.png|thumb|Karta koja pokazuje političku situaciju u Nizozemskim između 1556. i 1648. godine.]]
Diplomats, merchants, students, humanists, scholars, and artists, from all over Europe, were drawn to Portugal during its Renaissance. The maritime trade of the [[Age of Discovery]] played a decisive role in the evolution of the Portuguese Renaissance. Trade intensified contacts with important centers of the [[Italian Renaissance]] and it allowed a new commercial bourgeoisie to prosper and have excess funds to become patrons of the Portuguese Renaissance, much like the other Renaissances of Europe.{{Cn|date=February 2017}}
Godine 1500. [[Sedamnaest provincija]] bile su u ličnoj uniji pod [[Burgundijska Nizozemska|burgundijskim vojvodama]], a sa [[grofovija Flandrija|flandrijskim]] gradovima kao gravitacionim centrima, kulturološki i ekonomski formirale su jedno od najbogatijih područja Evrope. Tokom tog vijeka ta regija također je prošla kroz značajne promjene. Ujedinjenje sa [[špansko carstvo|Španijom]] pod [[Karlo V., car Svetog Rimskog Carstva|Karlom V]], [[renesansni humanizam|humanizam]] i [[reformacija]] doveli su do pobune protiv španske vladavine i početka [[nizozemska revolucija|religijskog rata]]. Do kraja 16. vijeka sjeverna i [[južna Nizozemska]] bile su praktično podijeljene. Iako se taj raspad odrazio u vizuelnoj umjetnosti u [[slikarstvo holandskog zlatnog doba|holandskom zlatnom dobu]] na sjeveru i [[flamansko barokno slikarstvo|flamanskom baroku]] na jugu, ostala područja misli i dalje su se povezivala sa tokovima misli [[renesansa|renesanse]] u 16. vijeku. Postepeno, ravnoteža moći se pomjerila dalje od južne Nizozemske, koja je ostala pod španskom vlašću, do nastajuće [[Nizozemska Republika|Nizozemske Republike]].<ref name="Janson">{{cite book | last = Janson | first = H.W. |author2=Janson, Anthony F. | year = 1997 | title = History of Art | edition = 5th, rev. | publisher = [[Harry N. Abrams, Inc.]] | location = New York | url = http://www.abramsbooks.com | isbn = 0-8109-3442-6}}</ref>
 
The discovery of new worlds and contact with other civilizations led to a cultural mix, which was reflected in the arts and literature of the Portuguese Renaissance. The contact with the civilizations of Africa and the East led to the importation of numerous objects of ceramics, textiles and furniture, precious woods, ivory and silk, in turn, led to the emergence of new artistic forms resulting cultural exchanges between Europe, and East Africa, through the Portuguese. The new trade of items with the newly discovered lands is also what allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be funded, by creating a wealthy [[Portuguese nobility]] and merchant class.
Dva faktora odredila su sudbinu te regije u 16. vijeku. Prvi je bio ujedinjenje sa Španskim kraljevstvom 1496. kroz brak [[Philip I. Lijepi|Philipa Lijepog]] od [[vojvoda Burgundije|Burgundije]] i [[Juana I od Kastilje|Juane od Kastilje]]. Njihov sin, Karlo V., rođen u [[Gent]]u, naslijedio je najveće carstvo na svijetu, te je time [[Sedamnaest Provincija|Nizozemska]], iako istaknut dio carstva, postala ovisna o velikoj stranoj snazi.
 
It was Portugal's connection, through the vast [[Portuguese Empire]], to a full world of trade, culture, and commerce, from [[Japan]] to [[Brazil]] and from the [[Azores]] to [[Goa]], that allowed the Portuguese Renaissance to be born. Portugal's unique ability to interact and colonize other peoples (later called [[Lusotropicalism]]), allowed it fund a flourishing Renaissance of its own, of arts, humanities, religion, and sciences alike, not just in its mainland, but throughout its empire, due to the special link that the Portuguese Empire had to Portugal.
Drugi faktor uključivao je religijske procese. [[Srednji vijek]] je dao nove oblike religioznog razmišljanja. Praksa [[Devotio Moderna]], na primjer, bila je naročito snažna u toj regiji, dok su kritike [[Katolička crkva|Katoličke crkve]] iz 16. vijeka koje su se proširile širom Evrope također zahvatile Nizozemske. [[renesansni humanizam|Humanisti]] poput [[Erazmo Roterdamski|Desideriusa Erasmusa od Rotterdama]] bili su kritični, ali ostali odani crkvi. Međutim, širenje [[reformacija|reformacije]], koje je započeo [[Martin Luther]] 1517. godine, na kraju je dovelo do otvorenog rata. Reformacija, naročito ideje [[John Calvin|Johna Calvina]], dobile su značajnu podršku u Nizozemskim, te nakon [[ikonoklazam|izbijanja ikonoklazma]] 1566. Španija je pokušala zaustaviti protok i održati autoritet [[Tridentski koncil|posttridentske]] crkve putem sile uvevši [[Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, vojvoda Albe|Fernanda Álvareza od Toleda, vojvodu Albe]].<ref name="Kamen">{{cite book | last =Kamen | first = Henry | year = 2005 | title = Spain, 1469–1714, A Society of Conflict | edition = 3rd | publisher = Pearson Education | location = Harlow, United Kingdom | url = http://www.pearsoned.co.uk | isbn = 0-582-78464-6}}</ref> Represija koja je uslijedila dovela je do [[holandska pobuna|holandske pobune]], početka [[osamdesetogodišnji rat|Osamdesetogodišnjeg rata]], te osnivanja [[Nizozemska Republika|Nizozemske Republike]] u sjevernim provincijama. Nakon toga, Južna Nizozemska postala je utvrda [[kontrareformacija|kontrareformacije]], dok je [[kalvinizam]] postao glavna religija onih na snazi u Nizozemskoj Republici.
 
== Arts ==
=== Utjecaj talijanske renesanse ===
The arts in the Portuguese Renaissance are a matter of historiographical dispute. This is because despite arts flourishing in this time, they did not follow the classicist aesthetic standards on which the Italians built their Renaissance. The arts of the Portuguese Renaissance were unique amongst other Renaissance arts. They were a mixing of Late Gothic style with the innovations of the fifteenth century and a Portuguese national twist all at once. The assimilation with the Italian Renaissance arts model only really begins around 1540, when Portuguese Renaissance artists start breaking away from their national norms and adapt their works to the classicist Italian and Spanish model, though still keeping a Portuguese nature.<ref name="joaquimcaetano.wordpress.com">[http://joaquimcaetano.wordpress.com/amor-fama-e-virtude/ao-modo-de-italia/ Caetano, Joaquim. ''Ao Modo de Itália'']</ref><ref>Ribeiro, Maria Teresa P. D. ''A Escola do Mestre de Romeira e o Maneirismo Escalabitano: 1540-1620''. Universidade de Coimbra, 1992. pp. 1-2 [http://dited.bn.pt/29864/864/1276.pdf]</ref><ref>Serrão, Vítor. ''A pintura Maneirista em Portugal''. Lisboa: Instituto de Língua e Cultura Portuguesa, 1991. p. 9</ref>
[[Image:Holbein-erasmus.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Erazmo Roterdamski|Desiderius Erasmus]] 1523. godine]]
[[File:Torre Belém April 2009-4a.jpg|thumb|right|Francisco de Arruda's [[Belém Tower]] is one of the most emblematic architectural pieces of the Portuguese Renaissance.]]
Trgovina u luci u [[Bruges]]u i tekstilna industrija, većinom u Gentu, pretvorili su Flandriju u najbogatiji dio Sjeverne Evrope krajem 15. vijeka. Burgundijski dvor pretežno je obitavao u Brugesu, Gentu i [[Brisel]]u. Vlastela i trgovci mogli su davati umjetnicima narudžbe, stvorivši klasu vrlo vještih slikara i muzičara koji su bili cijenjeni i traženi na čitavom kontinentu.<ref name="Heughebaert">{{cite book | last = Heughebaert | first = H. |author2=Defoort, A. |author3=Van Der Donck, R. | year = 1998 | title = Artistieke opvoeding | publisher = Den Gulden Engel bvba. | location = Wommelgem, Belgium | isbn = 90-5035-222-7}}</ref>
=== Architecture ===
{{main|Renaissance architecture in Portugal}}
In terms of architecture, much like many sections of the arts, the Portuguese Renaissance did not, for the most and initial part, follow the paths of the other Renaissances, which heavily focused on the sophistication and simplicity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. For the larger part of the Portuguese Renaissance, its architecture was largely the continuation and elaboration of the [[Gothic style]].
 
The profits of the spice trade, during the reigns of [[John II of Portugal|John II]], [[Manuel I of Portugal|Manuel I]], and [[John III of Portugal|John III]], financed the sumptuous and dominant style of the Portuguese Renaissance, the [[Manueline]] style.<ref name="Bergin">{{cite book|last= Bergin|first= Thomas Goddard, Jennifer Speake|url= https://books.google.com/books?id=VOb4hIp7EE8C&lpg=PP1&dq=Encyclopedia%20of%20the%20Renaissance%20and%20the%20Reformation%20%20By%20Thomas%20Goddard%20Bergin&pg=PP1|title= Encyclopedia of the Renaissance and the Reformation|origyear= |year= 2004|publisher= Infobase Publishing|location= London|isbn= 0816054517|page= }}</ref> The Manueline was largely an intricate and complex style, with heavy gothic and light neo-classical influence, that was unique to Portugal.
To je dovelo do čestih razmjena između Nizozemskih i sjeverne Italije. Primjeri toga su talijanski arhitekti [[Tommaso Vincidor]] i [[Alessandro Pasqualini]], koji su radili u Nizozemskim veći dio svojih karijera, flamanski slikar [[Jan Gossaert]], čija je posjeta Italiji 1508. u društvu [[Filip Burgundijski, biskup Utrechta|Philipa Burgundijskog]] ostavila dubok utisak,<ref name="Janson"/> muzičar [[Adrian Willaert]] koji je pretvorio [[venecija|Veneciju]] u najvažniji muzički centar svog vremena<ref name="Heughebaert"/> (vidjeti [[Venecijanska škola (muzika)|Venecijanska škola]]) i [[Giambologna]], flamanski kipar koji je proveo svoje najproduktivnije godine u [[firenca|Firenci]].
 
The first known building to be done in Manueline style is the [[Monastery of Jesus of Setubal]], by the architect [[Diogo de Boitaca]], one of the originators and masters of the style. The nave of the monastery's church, supported by spiral columns, reveals the attempt to [[Hall church|unify and make equal of the church]], a style which reaches its climax in the church of [[Jerónimos Monastery]], completed in 1520 by architect [[João de Castilho]]. Francisco de Arruda's [[Belém Tower]] and chapter window of the [[Convent of Christ (Tomar)|Convent of the Order of Christ]], in [[Tomar]], are some of the most famous examples of the Manueline style, and Portuguese Renaissance architecture in a whole.
Prije 1500. godine, talijanska renesansa je imala malo do nikakvog utjecaja iznad Alpa. Nakon toga počinju se primjećivati renesansni utjecaji, ali, za razliku od talijanske renesanse, gotički utjecaji ostali su značajni. Oživljavanje klasičnog perioda također nije centralna tema kao u Italiji, "preporod" se prikazuje više kao povratak prirodi i ovosvjetskoj ljepoti.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
 
Austere Renaissance classicism did not flourish much in the Portuguese Renaissance, but slowly established itself from the 1530s and onward, with the help of both foreigners and nationals, like [[Francisco de Holanda]] and Diogo de Torralva. The [[Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição (Tomar)|Hermitage of Nossa Senhora da Conceição]], in Tomar, by Diogo de Torralva, is an excellent examples of the pure Renaissance classical architecture from the Portuguese Renaissance. Some examples of the strong and pure classical Renaissance are Miguel de Arruda's [[Igreja da Graça (Évora)|Igreja da Graça]], in [[Évora]], [[Diogo de Arruda]]'s [[Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa]], in [[Vila Viçosa]], and the Cloister of King D. John III, at the Convent of the Order of Christ, by Diogo de Torralva and [[Filippo Terzi]], considered one of the most emblematic pieces of the Portuguese Renaissance. The Quinta da Bacalhoa and the [[Casa dos Bicos]] are good examples of strong classical Renaissance style palaces, which still hold Manueline tendencies.
== Renesansa u Nizozemskim ==
 
<gallery perrow="8">
=== Umjetnost ===
File:Sé Velha de Coimbra ou Igreja da Sé Velha 3.jpg|The classical side portal of the [[Old Cathedral of Coimbra]], by João de Ruão
{{main|Holandsko i flamansko renesansno slikarstvo}}
File:Igreja da Graça de Évora - Vista geral.jpg|The façade of the [[Igreja da Graça (Évora)|Church of Nossa Senhora da Graça]], by Miguel de Arruda
[[Image:Hieronymus Bosch - The Garden of Earthly Delights - Hell.jpg|thumb|upright|''Pakao'', desna ploča triptiha ''[[Vrt naslade]]'' [[Hieronymus Bosch|Hieronymusa Boscha]]]]
File:Pt-coimbra-mosteiro-santacruz.JPG|The manueline façade of the [[Monastery of Santa Cruz (Coimbra)|Monastery of Santa Cruz]], by [[Diogo de Boitaca]]
[[Image:Bruegel, Pieter de Oude - De val van icarus - hi res.jpg|thumb|250px|left|''[[Pejzaž sa Ikarovim padom]]'' prema [[Pieter Bruegel Stariji|Pieteru Breugelu Starijem]]]]
File:TomarConvent-Cloisters1.jpg|The ''Cloister of John III'', at the [[Convent of Christ (Tomar)|Convent of Christ]], by Diogo de Torralva and [[Filippo Terzi]]
[[Rano nizozemsko slikarstvo|Slikarstvo 15. vijeka u Nizozemskim]] još uvijek pokazuje snažne religijske utjecaje, suprotno germanskom slikarstvu. Čak i nakon 1500. godine, kada se renesansni utjecaj počinje primjećivati, utjecaj majstora iz prethodnog vijeka vodi većinom religijskom i narativnom stilu slikanja.
File:Vila Viçosa September 2013-5a (cropped).jpg|The classical façade of the [[Ducal Palace of Vila Viçosa]], by [[Diogo de Arruda]]
File:Conceiçao Velha - Portal Manuelino.JPG|The façade of the [[Church of Nossa Senhora da Conceição Velha]], by Francisco Ferreira
File:Lisboa - Mosteiro dos Jerónimos - Claustro.jpg|The cloister of [[Jerónimos Monastery]], by Teodósio Frias and Diogo Vaz
File:Misericordia (Praça da República).jpg|The House of Misericórdia, in [[Viana do Castelo Municipality|Viana do Castelo]], by João Lopes
</gallery>
 
=== Painting ===
Prvi slikar koji pokazuje osobine novog doba je [[Hieronymus Bosch]]. Njegova djela su čudna i puna naizgled iracionalnog slikovitog izlaganja, čineći ga teškim za razumijevanje.<ref name="Janson"/> Prije svega se čini iznenađujuće modernim, uvodeći svijet snova koji je u snažnom kontrastu sa tradicionalnim stilom flamanskih majstora njegovog vremena.
[[File:D. João III 1502-1557 hd.jpg|thumb|right|[[John III of Portugal|John III]]'s reign, which saw Portuguese monopoly on the [[Spice trade]], allowed a flourishing of Portuguese painting.]]
Painting was one of the more distinguishing factors of the Portuguese Renaissance, being one of the more contrasting arts to the other Renaissances of Europe. Painting in the Portuguese Renaissance was largely sober and almost exclusively religious, being more inline with the [[Northern Renaissance]] in nature, not following the pomp and excess of the Italian and [[Spanish Renaissance]]s.
 
Portuguese Renaissance painting was largely in contact with Flemish style.<ref>Caetano, Joaquim. ''O Melhor Oficial de Pintura que Naquele Tempo Havia'' [http://joaquimcaetano.wordpress.com/amor-fama-e-virtude/o-melhor-oficial-de-pintura-que-naquele-tempo-havia/]</ref> Links between the two movements reached a new level, in 1430, with the marriage of [[Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy|Isabel of Aviz, Infanta of Portugal]], to [[Philip the Good|Philip III, Duke of Burgundy]]. While the marriage was in negotiations, the Burgundian court sent the famed [[Jan van Eyck]], to paint the [[Portrait of Isabella of Portugal (van Eyck)|Portrait of Isabel of Aviz]]. Van Eyck remained in Portugal for over a year, where he established a school of art, alongside Olivier de Gand and Jean d'Ypres.<ref>Vasconcellos, Joaquim de. ''A Pintura Portuguesa nos Séculos XV e XVI''. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade, 1929. pp. 10-12. [http://purl.pt/975/3/ba-606-5-v_PDF/ba-606-5-v_PDF_24-C-R0075/ba-606-5-v_0000_capa-42_t24-C-R0075.pdf]</ref> This school gave origin to the School of Masters of the [[Sé Cathedral of Angra do Heroísmo]], which was fostered by [[Jácome de Bruges]].
Poslije 1550. flamanski i holandski slikari počinju pokazivati više zanimanja za prirodu i ljepotu ''an sich'', što je dovelo do stila koji inkorporira renesansne elemente, ali ostaje vrlo udaljen od elegantne lakoće talijanske renesansne umjetnosti<ref name="Heughebaert"/> i vodi direktno do tema velikih flamanskih i holandskih [[barok]]nih slikara: pejzaža, mrtve prirode i žanrovskog slikarstva - scena iz svakodnevnice.<ref name="Janson"/>
 
[[Nuno Gonçalves]], author of the [[Saint Vincent Panels]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.uc.pt/artes/6spp/n1.html |accessdate=January 4, 2013 |deadurl=yes |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070901011455/http://www.uc.pt/artes/6spp/n1.html |archivedate=September 1, 2007 }}</ref> and designer of the [[Pastrana Tapestries]], is considered one of the precursors of Portuguese Renaissance painting in Portugal.<ref>Britannica Educational Publishing, [https://books.google.com/books?id=L1thSSsLANkC&lpg=PA101&dq=Nuno%20gon%C3%A7alves%20renaissance&pg=PA101#v=onepage&q=Nuno%20gon%C3%A7alves%20renaissance&f=false One hundred most influential painters and sculptors of the Renaissance], p.101</ref> In his panels, considered one of the most important pieces of painted art in Portuguese history, he depicts prominent figures of Portuguese nobility, royalty, and clergy of the time with a dry style but powerfully realistic. His concern of portraying each figure individually, shows heavy Flemish influence, and foreshadows later Renaissance concerns.<ref>Sandra Sider, [http://Handbook%20to%20life%20in%20Renaissance%20Europe,%20https://books.google.com/books?id=yyRXHE3ZN5sC&lpg=PA76&dq=Nuno%20gon%C3%A7alves%20renaissance&pg=PA76#v=onepage&q=Nuno%20gon%C3%A7alves%20renaissance&f=false Handbook to life in Renaissance Europe], p.76</ref>
Ova evolucija vidi se u djelima [[Joachim Patinir|Joachima Patinira]] i [[Pieter Aertsen|Pietera Aertsena]], ali pravi genij među tim slikarima bio je [[Pieter Bruegel Stariji]], poznat po svojim prikazima prirode i svakodnevnice, pokazujući preferencu za čovjekovo prirodno stanje, odabravši da prikazuje seljaka umjesto princa.
 
At the beginning of the 16th century, various schools of painters were active throughout Portugal and its empire, often in collaboration with foreigners. A common trend amongst these schools of the Portuguese Renaissance was to give credit to their works of art as a school, and leave the actual author anonymous, making it difficult to attribute authorship. Even amongst those painters that gave their name to their works, it is complicated to verify the total validity of authorship due to the habit of collective works. A famous example of this was by court painter [[Jorge Afonso]], whose pieces were often worked on by his colleagues at court, such as Frei Carlos, [[Francisco Henriques]], [[Cristóvão de Figueiredo]], [[Garcia Fernandes]], [[Gregório Lopes]], and Jorge Leal, amongst others. In [[Norte Region, Portugal|Northern Portugal]], a similar group existed, centered on [[Grão Vasco|Vasco Fernandes]], alongside Gaspar Vaz and Fernão de Anes.<ref>Rodrigues, Dalila. ''Vasco Fernandes, Esboço Biográfico''. In ''Grão Vasco e a Pintura Europeia do Renascimento''. Lisboa: Comissão Nacional para as Comemorações dos Descobrimentos Portugueses, 1992 [http://www1.ci.uc.pt/artes/6spp/frames.html] {{webarchive |url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120717013324/http://www1.ci.uc.pt/artes/6spp/frames.html |date=July 17, 2012 }}</ref>
''[[Pejzaž sa Ikarovim padom]]'', koji se sada smatra ranom kopijom, kombinira nekoliko elemenata sjevernog renesansnog slikarstva. On nagovještava obnovljeno zanimanje za antiku (legenda o [[Ikar]]u), ali heroj Ikar skriven je u pozadini. Glavni likovi u slici su sama priroda i, najvažnije od svega, seljak, koji ni ne diže pogled sa pluga dok Ikar pada. Brueghel pokazuje čovjeka kao antiheroja, smiješnog i ponekada grotesknog.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
 
During the Portuguese Renaissance, the largest center of learning and arts was [[Lisbon]], which thrived as a great city of Europe, because of its privileged position as a major trading center, open to a constant flow of new information, cultures, and finance.<ref>Serrão, p. 13</ref> Lisbon was a true center of the European Renaissance, where artists and scholars from the corners of Europe came to try to make it rich. The rich Lisbon nobility funded countless paintings, often for either religious institutions in Lisbon or in their feudal estates. The Portuguese royal court often transferred between Lisbon, [[Coimbra]], a former capital of Portugal, and Évora, which allowed these three cities to establish themselves as the largest centers of the Portuguese Renaissance. In Coimbra, the School of Coimbra was founded by Vicente Gil and his son, Manuel Vicente.<ref>Dias, Pedro — ''Vicente Gil e Manuel Vicente, pintores da Coimbra Manuelina''. Coimbra: Câmara Municipal de Coimbra 2003. Catálogo da Exposição.</ref> In Évora, Manuel I of Portugal established a rich court, which would see its height under his son, [[Henry, King of Portugal|Cardinal Infante Henrique of Aviz, Archbishop of Évora]], who founded the [[University of Évora]] and its school of arts.<ref>{{cite book |last= Veríssimo Serrão |first= Joaquim |title= História de Portugal - Volume III: O Século de Ouro (1495-1580) |year= 1978 |publisher= Verbo |location= Lisboa }}</ref>
=== Arhitektura i kiparstvo ===
Kao i u slikarstvu, renesansnoj arhitekturi trebalo je vremena da dospije do Visokih Zemalja i nije sasvim zamijenila gotičke elemente. Najvažniji kipar u Južnoj Nizozemskoj bio je [[Giambologna]], koji je proveo većinu svoje karijere u Italiji. Arhitekta pod direktnim utjecajem talijanskih majstora bio je [[Cornelis Floris de Vriendt]], koji je dizajnirao [[gradska vijećnica Antwerpa|gradsku vijećnicu Antwerpa]], dovršenu 1564. godine.
 
<gallery perrow="8">
[[File: Well of Moses at CMArt (Cropped).JPG|thumb|left|200px|Sluter, ''Mojsijev bunar'', 1395-1405]]
File:St. Auta Altapiece - Arrival of the relics of St. Auta at Madre de Deus Monastery - Lisbon Workshop - ca. 1522 - oil on oak.JPG|''Arrival of the Relics at Madre de Deus'', by [[Cristóvão de Figueiredo]] and [[Garcia Fernandes]]
U kiparstvu, međutim, flamanski umjetnici 15. vijeka, iako su se pridržavali kršćanskih tema, razvili su tehnike i naturalistički stil koji izlazi pozitivan u usporedbi sa djelima ranorenesansnih talijanskih savremenika kao što je [[Donatello]]. [[Claus Sluter]] (fl. ~1400) je stvorio djela poput [[Mojsijev bunar|Mojsijevog bunara]] sa dinamizmom koji je na početku 15. vijeka bio gotovo nepoznat; [[Nikolaus Gerhaert]] van Leyden (b. ~1420), rođen u Holandiji, pravio je skulpture kao što je "Čovjek u razmišljanju" koja se i danas čine "modernijima" nego talijansko Quattrocento rezbarenje.
File:Cardeal D. Henrique, cópia de original de c. 1590.jpg|''Portrait of [[Henry, King of Portugal|King Cardenal Henrique I of Portugal]]'', by the School of [[Évora]]
[[File:Nicolaus von Leyden, Self-portrait2.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Gerhaert, ''Čovjek u razmišljanju'', 1467]]
File:Terreiro do Paço em 1662.jpg|''[[Ribeira Palace]] and the [[Terreiro do Paço]]'', by [[Dirk Stoop|Rodrigo Stoop]]
File:John, Prince of Portugal (c.1552-4) - Anthonis Mor.png|''Portrait of [[João Manuel, Prince of Portugal]]'', by [[Antonis Mor|Antonio Moro]]
File:GraoVasco1.jpg|''Saint Peter on his Throne'', by [[Grão Vasco|Vasco Fernandes]]
File:Sebastian, King of Portugal (c. 1565) - attributed to Cristóvão de Morais.png|''Portrait of [[Sebastian of Portugal|Sebastian I of Portugal]]'', by [[Cristóvão de Morais]]
File:Casamento de Santo Aleixo (1541) - Garcia Fernandes.png|''Marriage of D. [[Manuel I of Portugal|Manuel I]], as Saint Aleixo, and [[Maria of Aragon, Queen of Portugal|Maria of Aragon]], as his wife'', by [[Garcia Fernandes]]
File:Fons Vitae (c. 1515-1517) - Colijn de Coter (attributed).png|''Family of King D. [[Manuel I of Portugal|Manuel I]] at the Fons Vitae''; [[Colijn de Coter]]
</gallery>
 
== Sciences ==
U [[Nizozemska Republika|Nizozemskoj Republici]] ranog 17. vijeka, [[Hendrick de Keyser]] igra važnu ulogu u razvoju [[amsterdamska renesansa|amsterdamskog renesansnog]] stila, ne slijedeći ropski klasični stili, već ugrađujući mnoge dekorativne elemente, što je dalo rezultat koji se također može kategorizirati i kao [[manirizam]]. [[Hans Vredeman de Vries]] je bio još jedna važna ličnost, prije svega kao vrtni arhitekt.
[[File:Pedro Nunes.png|thumb|right|[[Pedro Nunes]] was a great scientist of Europe, innovating maths and inventing many devices, such as the [[Nonius (device)|nonius]].]]
As the pioneer in Age of Discovery, Portugal and its renaissance attracted experts in astronomy, mathematics, and naval technology, which made Portugal a technical and scientific capital of Europe. During the Portuguese Renaissance, there was a plethora of technical works being created, such as [[mappa mundi]], globes, treatises on the art of sailing, scripts, reports of shipwrecks, itineraries, and studies on tropical medicine.
 
Among the treatises on astronomy, oceanography, and nautical studies, major works included the following:
=== Muzika ===
*''Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis'', 1506, [[Duarte Pacheco Pereira]]
{{main|Franko-flamanska škola}}
*''Treaty on the Sphere'', 1537, [[Pedro Nunes]]
[[Image:Orlando de Lassus2.jpg|thumb|left|[[Orlande de Lassus]] predvodi komorni sastav, [[Hans Mielich]]]]
*''Route Map of the Purple Sea'', 1541, [[João de Castro]]
Dok su u slikarstvu Nizozemske predvodile u Sjevernoj Evropi, u muzici je [[franko-flamanska škola|"franko-flamanska" ili "holandska škola"]] dominirala čitavom Evropom. U ranoj renesansi, [[polifonija|polifoni]] muzičari i kompozitori iz Nizozemskih, kao što je [[Johannes Ciconia]], radili su na svim evropskim dvorovima i u crkvama. Obrazovani u crkvenim i katedralnim školama svoje vlastite regije, širili su se i donosili svoj stil čitavom kontinentu, tako da se do kasne renesanse u čitavoj Evropi pojavio ujedinjen muzički stil.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
*''Ars Nautica'', 1555, [[Fernão de Oliveira]]
*''Manuscript on the Production of Naus'', 1580, [[Fernão de Oliveira]]
 
[[Pedro Nunes]], one of the first Europeans to apply mathematics to cartography, discovered the concept of [[rhumb lines]], later applied to the [[Mercator projection]], which, in 1569, revolutionized cartography. He was also the inventor of several measuring apparatus, including the [[Nonius (device)|nonius]], to measure fractions of a degree.
Iako ne postoji veza sa antikom, prisutna je jasna flamanska "renesansna svijest", kao što je ukazao i flamanski teoretičar [[Johannes Tinctoris]], koji je za te kompozitore rekao: ''"Iako nije uvjerljivo, ništa vrijedno slušanja nije bilo komponovano prije njihovog vremena."''.<ref name="Janson"/>
 
With [[Vasco da Gama]]'s arrival in [[India]], and the Portuguese Empire's expansion into that land, many scientists were sent eastward to study and compile new drugs and medicinal plants. The botonist [[Tomé Pires]] and physicians [[Garcia de Orta]] and [[Cristóvão da Costa (botanist)|Cristóvão da Costa]] collected and published works on new plants and local medicines.
Renesansni elementi u muzici su povratak sa "božanskog porijekla" muzike ovozemaljskoj ljepoti i senzornoj radosti. Muzika postaje više struktuirana, uravnotežena i melodična. Dok je u srednjem vijeku izbor instrumenata bio slobodan, kompozitori sada počinju organizirati instrumente u homogene grupe i pišu muziku specifično za određene rasporede.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
 
=== Cartography ===
[[Josquin des Prez]] je bio najslavniji kompozitor tokom [[visoka renesansa|visoke renesanse]] i tokom svoje karijere uživao je pokroviteljstvo trojice papa. Podjednako prilagođen i sekularnoj i religioznoj muzici, može se smatrati prvim muzičkim genijem za kojeg znamo.<ref name="Janson"/>
Portuguese [[portolan chart]] were in great demand in Europe, for their greater knowledge and accuracy. Although protected as a state secret, the cartographic knowledge would eventually be passed clandestinely by some of those involved in the operation. One such example is the [[Cantino planisphere]], which was stolen from the [[Casa da Índia]], the Portuguese royal ministry for all things maritime, for the [[Duke of Ferrara]] in 1502,<ref>Leite, Duarte. O mais antigo mapa do Brasil. In: Dias, Carlos Malheiros (coord.). ''História da Colonização Portuguesa do Brasil (v. 2)''. p. 223-281 e il. à p. 229.</ref> or the [[Dieppe maps]], commissioned by [[Henry II of France]] and [[Henry VIII of England]], which were copies of stolen Portuguese maps of the period.<ref>[https://books.google.com/books?id=3h37IOxTO5cC&lpg=PA73&ots=7M9RfNYiad&dq=Atlas%20miller%20king%20Manuel%20I&pg=PA73#v=onepage&q=Atlas%20miller%20king%20Manuel%20I&f=false Cartographie historique du Golfe persique: actes du colloque organisé les 21 et 22 avril 2004 à Téhéran par l'EPHE, l'université de Téhéran et le Centre de documentation et de recherche d'Iran]</ref>
 
In 1475, for the first time a Latin translation of [[Ptolemy's world map]], from the second century, was printed. Portuguese exploration and studies soon revealed the gaps of ancient knowledge, such as how in 1488, passing the Cape of Good Hope, [[Bartolomeu Dias]] proved Ptolemy was erroneous in that there was no passage to the Indian Ocean.
Ostali važni kompozitori iz Nizozemskih bili su [[Guillaume Dufay]], [[Johannes Ockeghem]], [[Jacob Clemens non Papa]] i [[Adrian Willaert]]. [[Orlande de Lassus]], flamanac koji je živio u Italiji u mladosti i proveo većinu svoje karijere u [[München]]u, bio je vodeći kompozitor kasne renesanse.
 
In 1492, [[Martin Behaim]], after his training in Portugal, and in service to the [[King of Portugal]], built the first known globe, which had Europe and Asia were separated by a single ocean, a theory that [[Christopher Columbus]], who was also trained in Portugal, would test later that year.
=== Književnost ===
{{see also|Holandska književnost renesanse i zlatnog doba}}
[[File:0 Antwerp town hall (1).JPG|250px|thumb|right|[[Gradska vijećnica Antwerpa]] (dovršena 1564. godine)]]
Sredinom 16. vijeka, grupa [[rederijkerskamers|retoričara]] (vidjeti [[srednjovjekovna holandska književnost]]) u [[Vojvodstvo Brabant|Brabantu]] i [[Flandrija|Flandriji]] pokušala je udahnuti novi život u stereotipizirane forme prethodnog doba uvevši izvornu kompoziciju u novopronađene grane [[latinski jezik|latinske]] i [[starogrčki jezik|grčke]] poezije. Vođa tih ljudi bio je [[Johan Baptista Houwaert]], koji je bio viđen bezgraničnom ljubavlju prema klasičnoj i mitološkoj fantaziji.<ref name="brittanica">{{EB1911 |inline=1 |last=Gosse |first=Edmund William |wstitle=Dutch Literature#Houwaert. |display=Dutch Literature § Houwaert |volume=8 |page=721}}</ref>
 
<gallery perrow="8">
Najvažniji žanr bio je objavljivanje muzike, naročito [[psalmi|psalma]]. [[Souterliedekens]] publikacija jedan je od najvažnijih izvora za rekonstrukciju renesansnih narodnih pjesama. Kasnije publikacije bile su pod jakim utjecajem pobune protiv Španaca: herojske bojne pjesme i političke balade koje su ismijavale Španske okupatore.
File:CantinoPlanisphere.png|The 1502 ''[[Cantino planisphere]]'' was the [[Padrão Real]] made by the [[Casa da Índia]]
File:Capitanias.jpg|The 1574 map of the [[Captaincy Colonies of Brazil]], by Luís Teixeira
File:Azores old map.jpg|The 1584 ''Açores Insulae'' map of the [[Azores Islands]], by Luís Teixeira
File:Sebastião Lopes 1575.jpg|The 1575 map of Portugal and its African colonies, by Sebastião Lopes
File:1554 lopo homen mapa mundi 03.jpg|The 1554 map showing the global Portuguese Empire, by Lopo Homem
File:1563 lazaro luis 04 atlantic nord.jpg|The 1563 map of the North Atlantic Portuguese Empire, by Lazaro Luis
File:Pedro Reinel 1504.jpg|The 1504 map of North Africa and Europe, by Pedro Reinel
File:1583 sebastiao lopes (mapa mundi) 00.jpg|The 1583 map of global European empires, by Sebastião Lopes
</gallery>
 
== Humanities ==
Najbolje zapamćen od svih pisaca je [[Philips van Marnix, lord Sint-Aldegonda]], koji je bio jedan od vodećih ljudi u ratu za holandsku nezavisnost. Napisao je [[satira|satiru]] o Katoličkoj crkvi, započeo rad na prevodu [[biblija|Biblije]] i navodno napisao tekst [[Het Wilhelmus|nacionalne himne Nizozemske]].
In Portugal, as in the rest of Europe, the [[printing press]] played a key role in its Renaissance. The first printing presses came to Portugal by the hand of Jewish printers via Italy.<ref name="Tipografos.net">[http://tipografos.net/historia/prototipografos-judeus.html], Imprensa em Portugal: prototipógrafos judeus em tipógrafos.net.</ref> The first book printed in Portuguese in Portugal was the Sacramental, printed in [[Chaves Municipality, Portugal|Chaves]], in 1488, by Clemente Sanches de Vercial. By 1490, books were being printed in Lisbon, [[Porto]], and [[Braga]]. Because of the new access to mass production of language and literature pieces, the Portuguese Renaissance saw a great flourishment for written work, from treatises to theatre, as well as the advancement and sophistication of the [[Portuguese language]]. Because of Portugal's key place in global relations, at the time, literary works of the Portuguese Renaissance influenced a great deal of foreign literary movements and linguistic studies.
 
=== Language ===
Druge važne ličnosti su [[Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert]], [[Hendrick Laurensz. Spieghel]] i [[Roemer Visscher]]. Neizbježno, njihova djela i karijere bili su većinom predodređeni borbom između reformacije i Katoličke crkve.
[[File:João de Barros.jpg|thumb|right|[[João de Barros]] was a true man of the Portuguese Renaissance, having been a military man, historian, and grammaticist.]]
The Portuguese Renaissance produced a plethora of poets, historians, critics, theologians, and moralists, of whom the Portuguese Renaissance was their golden age. Language was one of the purest parts of the Portuguese Renaissance, due to the large number of erudite words imported from classical Latin and ancient Greek, which greatly increased the complexity of the Portuguese language. The sixteenth century ''Cancioneiro Geral'', by [[Garcia de Resende]], is often agreed upon to mark the end of [[Galician-Portuguese|Old Portuguese]] and the beginning of Modern Portuguese.
 
The standardization of the Portuguese language started in 1536, when [[Fernão de Oliveira]] published his ''Grammatica da lingoagem portuguesa'', the first literary piece that laid rules and standards for the Portuguese language.<ref>[http://purl.pt/369/1/ficha-obra-gramatica.html Tesouros impressos da Bibioteca Nacional GRAMMATICA DA LINGOAGEM PORTUGUESA DE]</ref><ref>Cantarino, Nelson. ''O idioma nosso de cada dia'', in: Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, ano 1, nº 8, fev/mar 2006 (Seção: Documento Por Dentro da Biblioteca) – [http://www.revistadehistoria.com.br/v2/home/?go=detalhe&id=941 Texto parcial] {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20121208183539/http://www.revistadehistoria.com.br/v2/home/?go=detalhe&id=941 |date=2012-12-08 }}, sítio obtido em 31 de janeiro de 2008.</ref> In 1540, [[João de Barros]], a distinguished officer of the Portuguese crown, published the ''Grammatica da Língua Portuguesa com os Mandamentos da Santa Madre Igreja'', which taught the standards of the Portuguese language alongside the morals and culture of the [[Portuguese people]]. João de Barros's ''Grammatica'' was the second piece that sought to standardize the Portuguese language, and is considered the world's first illustrated text book.<ref name="RHBN">Cantarino, Nelson. ''O idioma nosso de cada dia'', in: Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, ano 1, nº 8, fev/mar 2006 (Seção: Documento Por Dentro da Biblioteca) – [http://www.revistadehistoria.com.br/v2/home/?go=detalhe&id=941 Texto parcial] {{webarchive|url=https://archive.is/20121208183539/http://www.revistadehistoria.com.br/v2/home/?go=detalhe&id=941 |date=2012-12-08 }}, sítio obtido em 31 de janeiro de 2008.</ref>
=== Nauka ===
[[Image:MercatormapFullEurope16thcentury.jpg|thumb|left|260px|[[Gerardus Mercator|Mercatorova]] karta Evrope, 1554]]
Novo doba pokazalo se i u nauci. Život flamanskog [[anatomija|anatoma]] [[Andreas Vesalius|Andreasa Vesaliusa]] tipično pokazuje i nove mogućnosti i probleme koji su došli s njima. On je pružio pionirski rad u ponovnom otkrivanju ljudskog tijela, nakon vijekova njegovog zanemarivanja. Time je zadobio veliko poštovanje od nekih, ali izazvao i nekoliko istraživanja u vezi s njegovim metodama (disekcija ljudskog tijela) i religijskih implikacija njegovog rada.
 
The great interest in [[philology]], during the Portuguese Renaissance, spread the use of etymological spellings, creating Portuguese words through justification of their Latin roots. The 1576 ''Orthographia da lingoa portuguesa'', by Duarte Nunes de Leão, a great pioneer in the study of Portuguese orthography, was one of the major works in support for the greater Latinisation of the Portuguese language. The printing press was key in the expansion of the Portuguese language, allowing new spellings, words, and grammar to be seen by most Portuguese speakers.
Dok je Vesalius izvodio pionirski rad u ponovnom otkrivanju ljudskog tijela, [[Gerardus Mercator]], kao jedan od vodećih [[kartografija|kartografa]] svog vremena, učinio je isto u ponovnom otkrivanju vanjskog svijeta. I Mercator je dospio u probleme sa Crkvom zbog svojih uvjerenja i proveo nekoliko mjeseci u zatvoru nakon optužbe za [[hereza|herezu]].
 
Due to the success of the Portuguese Empire, and the [[padroado]] of the Portuguese missionary efforts, the Portuguese language came to be known as the "Christian language" in many parts of Asia. In concordance with the principles of the Portuguese Renaissance, many schools of learning and colleges were founded throughout Portugal and its empire.<ref>{{cite book|author=ZWRTJES, Otto, Even Hovdhaugen|title=Missionary linguistics: selected papers from the First International Conference on Missionary Linguistics, Oslo, 13-16 March, 2003, Volume 1|editor=John Benjamins Publishing Company|year=2004|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=-Zs-tpB2b3MC&lpg=PA141&dq=portuguese%20linguistic%20studies%20missionaries&pg=PA141|pages=141–160|isbn=9027245975}}</ref>
Životi oba ta naučnika pokazuju kako se renesansni naučnici nisu plašili izazivanja onoga što je uzimano za gotovo vijekovima i kako je to dovelo do problema sa svemoćnom Katoličkom crkvom.
 
It was the scholars of the Portuguese Renaissance that compiled some of the first interlingua dictionaries and literary works, able to do so because of the great distribution of the Portuguese Empire. These dictionaries were often the first linguistic interactions Europeans had to these far east cultures, such as the 1580 Chinese-Portuguese Dictionary,<ref name=ricciDict>"Dicionário Português-Chinês : 葡汉辞典 (Pu-Han cidian): Portuguese-Chinese dictionary", por Miguel Ruggieri e Matteo Ricci; editado por John W. Witek. Publicado em 2001, Biblioteca Nacional. {{ISBN|9725652983}}. [https://books.google.com/books?id=A7h5YbM5M60C Parcialmente disponível] no [[Google Books]]</ref> by [[Michele Ruggieri|Miguel Ruggeiro]] and [[Matteo Ricci|Mateus Rigo]], the 1603 [[Nippo Jisho]] Japanese-Portuguese Dictionary,<ref>Michael Cooper; “The Nippo Jisho” (review of the ''Vocabulario da Lingoa de Japam com Adeclaracao em Portugues, Feito por Alguns Padres, e Irmaos da Companhia de Jesu'') ''Monumenta Nipponica'' Vol. 31, No. 4 (Winter, 1976), pp. 417&ndash;430</ref> by [[João Rodrigues (missionary)|João Rodrigues]], and the 1651 [[Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum]] Portuguese-Latin-Vietnamese Dictionary, by [[Alexandre de Rhodes]].<ref>''Researches Into the Physical History of Mankind'' By James Cowles p.501 [https://books.google.com/books?id=4CYXAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA501&dq=%22Dictionarium+Annamiticum+Lusitanum+et+Latinum%22#PPA501,M1]</ref>
Iako je izum štamparske mašine u 1430-im od strane [[Laurens Janszoon Coster|Laurensa Janszoona Costera]] ipak samo plod romantične mašte, Nizozemske su imale rani početak u štampanju. Do 1470. štamparska mašina se koristila u [[Utrecht]]u, gdje je prva datirana postojeća knjiga štampana 1473. godine, dok je prva knjiga na holandskom jeziku bila [[delft]]ska Biblija iz 1477. godine. Do 1481. Nizozemske su imale štamparske štamparije u 21 većem i manjem gradu.<ref>E. L. Eisenstein: The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge, 1993 str.13–17, citirano u: [[Angus Maddison]]: Growth and Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity, Washington 2005, str.17f.</ref> Poznate izdavačke kuće kao što su [[Christoffel Plantijn]] u [[Antwerp]]u od 1555. pa nadalje, [[Petrus Phalesius Stariji]] u [[Leuven]]u od 1553. i [[Kuća Elzevir]] u [[Leiden]]u od oko 1580. pretvorile su Nizozemske u regionalni centar izdavaštva.
 
Because of the great prestige and importance of the Portuguese Renaissance on nautical studies and sciences, most explorers of the time studied in Portugal and carried the Portuguese language to newly discovered lands. Many Portuguese words have entered the lexicon of other languages, such as ''sepatu'', shoe in [[Indonesian language|Indonesian]], from the Portuguese ''sapato'', ''Keju'', cheese in [[Malay language|Malay]], from the Portuguese ''queijo'', ''meza'', table in [[Swahili language|Swahili]], from the Portuguese ''mesa'', and ''botan'', buton, from ''botão'', ''kappa'', cover, from ''capa'', and from the various [[Japanese words of Portuguese origin]]. Simultaneously, following the expansionist and knowledge seeking nature of the Portuguese Renaissance, the Portuguese language imported many words from foreign idioms, such as ''cachimbo'', meaning pipe, from the [[Kimbundu]] ''kixima'', and ''algodão'', meaning cotton, from the [[Arabic language|Arabic]] ''al-qutun''.
== Povezano ==
{{commonscat|Renaissance in Belgium}}
{{commonscat|Renaissance in the Netherlands}}
 
<gallery perrow="8">
=== Politička situacija ===
File:Cancioneiro Geral 001.jpg|The 1516 ''Cancioneiro Geral'', by [[Garcia de Resende]]
* [[Burgundijska Nizozemska]]
File:Grammatica joam de barros 2.jpg|The 1540 ''Grammatica da Língua Portuguesa com os Mandamentos da Santa Madre Igreja'', by [[João de Barros]]
* [[Sedamnaest Provincija]]
File:Ricci-Ruggieri-Portuguese-Chinese-dictionary-page-1.png|The 1583 ''Portuguese-Chinese Dictionary'', by [[Michele Ruggieri|Miguel Ruggeiro]] and [[Matteo Ricci|Mateus Rigo]]
* [[Nizozemska Republika]] – [[Holandsko zlatno doba]]
File:Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum (low-resolution).pdf|The 1651 ''[[Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum]]'', by [[Alexandre de Rhodes]]
* [[Južna Nizozemska]]
File:Grammatica da Lingoagem portuguesa.JPG|The 1536 ''Grammatica da lingoagem portuguesa'', by [[Fernão de Oliveira]]
* [[Osamdesetogodišnji rat]]
File:Obras de Garcia de Resende.jpg|The 1554 ''Livro das Obras de Garcia de Resende'', by [[Garcia de Resende]]
File:Grammatica da Lingoa Portuguesa.jpg|The 1576 ''Orthographia da lingoa portuguesa'', by Duarte Nunes de Leão
File:Grammatica da lingua Portuguesa.jpg|The 1540 ''Grammatica da Língua Portuguesa com os Mandamentos da Santa Madre Igreja'', by [[João de Barros]]
</gallery>
 
=== UmjetnostLiterature ===
[[File:Luís de Camões-Fernão Gomes.PNG|thumb|[[Luís de Camões]]'s contributions to the [[Portuguese language]] are so great that it is often dubbed the ''Language of Camões''.]]
* [[Rano nizozemsko slikarstvo]]
The Portuguese Renaissance was a golden age for literary works in Portugal. The abundance of funds and interest lead to the creation of some of the best known pieces of the Portuguese language. Because of Portugal's importance during the Age of Discovery and strategic location as a waypoint between Europe and the rest of the world, many of these literary works were able to circulate outside of Portugal and achieve popularity throughout Europe.
* [[Holandsko i flamansko renesansno slikarstvo]]
* [[Flamansko slikarstvo]]
* [[Holandska škola (muzika)]]
* [[Holandska književnost renesanse i zlatnog doba]]
* [[Popis flamanskih slikara]]
* [[Popis holandskih slikara]]
 
In 1516, Garcia de Resende published the ''Cancioneiro General'', which contained more than two hundred separate literary works, of various authors, from the reigns of D. [[Afonso V of Portugal|Afonso V]] and D. John II. Among the various authors represented in the ''Cancioneiro Geral'', [[Francisco de Sá de Miranda]], [[Gil Vicente]], and [[Bernardim Ribeiro]] were the most important and famous authors to the literary scene of the Portuguese Renaissance. Sá de Miranda was crucial to the internationalization of the literary works of the Portuguese Renaissance. After returning from his studies abroad, in 1526, Sá de Miranda introduced new forms of literary expression to Portugal, like the [[sonnet]] and the [[sestina]]. From 1502 until 1536, Gil Vicente wrote and staged forty one pieces of drama, both in Portuguese and Castilian, including mysteries, farces, comedies, and tragedies, which would earn him a space in history as the "Father of Iberian drama". Bernardim Ribeiro introduced the [[Pastoral]] novel to the [[Iberian Peninsula]] with his 1554 ''Menina e Moça'', alongside the [[eclogue]]s of [[Cristóvão Falcão]].
== Reference ==
 
{{Reflist}}
From the Portuguese Renaissance, there was no greater writer than [[Luís de Camões]], whose treasured works have nicknamed the Portuguese language as the ''Language of Camões''.<ref>{{cite web | title = Língua de Camões | work = Recanto das Letras | date = September 2010 | url = http://www.recantodasletras.com.br/artigos/2473191 | accessdate = 27 February 2013}}</ref> Camões was instrumental in reintroducing classical forms of literature, most importantly the epic, through his 1572 masterpiece, ''[[Os Lusíadas]]'', considered one of the greatest pieces of Portuguese literature from all time.
 
During the Portuguese Renaissance, [[Romance (heroic literature)|chivalric romances]] were a literary phenomenon of the Iberian Peninsula, and of Europe as a whole, to a lesser extent. These novels based themselves on the idealization of mediaeval chivalric codes, and were filled with princes and princesses, knights and damsels, and almost always had a Christian moral. This type of novel was best personified in the 1508 version of [[João de Lobeira]]'s ''[[Amadis de Gaula]]'' by [[Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo]], the 1541 ''Cronica do famoso e muito esforçado cavalleiro Palmeirim d´Inglaterra'' by [[Francisco de Moraes]], and the 1522 ''Crónica do Imperador Clarimundo'', by João de Barros.<ref name="Bergin" />
 
<gallery perrow="8">
File:BookFrontOsLusiadas1572.jpg|The 1572 ''[[Os Lusíadas]]'', by [[Luís de Camões]]
File:Auto de Moralidade de Gil Vicente.jpg|The 1517 ''Auto da Barca do Inferno'', by [[Gil Vicente]]
File:Manuel de Faria e Sousa, Europa portuguesa, Antonio Craesbeeck 1675, frontispicio.jpg|The 1675 ''Europa Portuguesa'', by [[Manuel de Faria e Sousa]]
File:Gaspar da Cruz - 1569 - Tractado - title page.png|The 1569 ''Tratado das Cousas da China'', by [[Gaspar da Cruz]]
File:Imagem160 Gil Vicente. Compilaçam de todalas obras. Joam Alvarez impressor. Lisboa, 1562.jpg|The 1562 ''Compilaçam de Todalas Obras'', by [[Gil Vicente]]
File:Sermões do Padre António Vieira da Companhia de Jesus, 1679.jpg|The 1679 ''Sermões'', by [[António Vieira]]
File:Francisco Manuel de Melo. Obras métricas. Lyon, 1665.jpg|The 1665 ''Obras Métricas'', by [[Francisco Manuel de Mello]]
File:Peregrinacao.jpg|The 1614 ''Peregrinação'', by [[Fernão Mendes Pinto]]
</gallery>
 
== References ==
{{reflist|2}}
 
== External links ==
{{commons category|Renaissance in Portugal}}
*[http://www.brown.edu/Facilities/John_Carter_Brown_Library/Portugal/Index.html Portugal and Renaissance Europe]
*[http://indianapublicmedia.org/harmonia/portuguese-renaissance/ The Portuguese Renaissance]