Razlike između izmjena na stranici "Korisnik:Duma/U radu9"

nema sažetka uređivanja
 
{{renesansa}}
'''Renesansa u Nizozemskim''' bila je kulturološki period [[sjevernoevropska renesansa|sjeverne renesanse]] koji se desio oko 16. vijeka u [[nizozemske|Nizozemskim]] (današnja [[Belgija]], [[Nizozemska]] i [[Francuska Flandrija]]).
The '''Renaissance in the Low Countries''' was a cultural period in the [[Northern Renaissance]] that took place in around the 16th century in the [[Low Countries]] (corresponding to modern-day [[Belgium]], the [[Netherlands]] and [[French Flanders]]).
 
CultureKultura inu theNizozemskim Lowpri Countrieskraju at15. thevijeka endbila ofje thepod 15th century was influenced by theutjecajem [[Italiantalijanska renesansa|talijanske Renaissancerenesanse]], throughputem tradetrgovine viakroz [[Bruges]] whichkojom madese FlandersFlandrija wealthyobogatila. ItsNjezina noblesvlastela commissionednaručivala artistsje whoumjetnike becamekoji knownsu acrosspostali Europepoznati u čitavoj Evropi. InU science,nauci je thepredvodio [[Anatomyanatomija|anatomistanatom]] [[Andreas Vesalius]] led the way; inu [[cartographykartografija|kartografiji]], karte [[Gerardus Mercator|Gerardusa Mercatora]]'s mappomagale assistedsu explorersistraživačima andi navigatorsnavigatorima. InU artumjetnosti, [[Dutchholandsko andi Flemishflamansko Renaissance paintingslikarstvo]] wentobuhvatalo fromje thesve strangeod workneobičnih ofdjela [[Hieronymus Bosch|Hieronymusa Boscha]] todo theprikaza everydaysvakodnevnog life ofživota [[Pieter Brueghel theStariji|Pietera ElderBrueghela Starijeg]]. In architecture, music and literatureU tooarhitekturi, themuzici culturei ofknjiževnosti thekultura LowNizozemskih Countriesje movedtakođer intoprešla theu Renaissancerenesansni stylestil.
 
== Geopolitička situacija i pozadina ==
[[File:The Low Countries.png|thumb|MapKarta showingkoja thepokazuje politicalpolitičku situationsituaciju inu theNizozemskim Low Countries betweenizmeđu 1556. andi 1648. godine.]]
InGodine 1500 the. [[SeventeenSedamnaest Provincesprovincija]] werebile insu au personalličnoj unionuniji under thepod [[BurgundianBurgundijska NetherlandsNizozemska|Burgundianburgundijskim Dukesvojvodama]], and witha thesa [[Countygrofovija of FlandersFlandrija|Flemishflandrijskim]] citiesgradovima askao centersgravitacionim of gravitycentrima, culturally andkulturološki economicallyi formedekonomski oneformirale ofsu thejedno richestod partsnajbogatijih ofpodručja EuropeEvrope. DuringTokom thetog coursevijeka ofta theregija centurytakođer theje regionprošla alsokroz experiencedznačajne significant changespromjene. TheUjedinjenje union withsa [[Spanishšpansko empirecarstvo|SpainŠpanijom]] underpod [[CharlesKarlo V., Holycar Svetog RomanRimskog EmperorCarstva|CharlesKarlom V]], [[Renaissancerenesansni humanismhumanizam|Humanismhumanizam]] andi [[Protestant Reformation|Reformationreformacija]] leddoveli tosu ado rebellionpobune againstprotiv thešpanske Spanishvladavine rulei and the start of thepočetka [[Eightynizozemska Years' Warrevolucija|religiousreligijskog warrata]]. ByDo thekraja end16. ofvijeka thesjeverna 16th century the northern andi [[Southernjužna NetherlandsNizozemska]] werebile su effectivelypraktično splitpodijeljene. WhileIako thisse fracturetaj wasraspad reflectedodrazio inu thevizuelnoj visualumjetnosti arts by theu [[Dutchslikarstvo Goldenholandskog Agezlatnog paintingdoba|Dutchholandskom Goldenzlatnom Agedobu]] in the northna andsjeveru thei [[Flemishflamansko Baroquebarokno paintingslikarstvo|Flemishflamanskom Baroquebaroku]] inna the southjugu, otherostala areaspodručja ofmisli thoughti remaineddalje associatedsu withse 16th-centurypovezivala currentssa oftokovima misli [[Renaissancerenesansa|renesanse]] thoughtu 16. Graduallyvijeku. Postepeno, theravnoteža balancemoći ofse powerpomjerila shifteddalje awayod fromjužne the Southern NetherlandsNizozemske, whichkoja remainedje underostala Spanishpod authorityšpanskom vlašću, todo the emergingnastajuće [[DutchNizozemska Republika|Nizozemske RepublicRepublike]].<ref name="Janson">{{cite book | last = Janson | first = H.W. |author2=Janson, Anthony F. | year = 1997 | title = History of Art | edition = 5th, rev. | publisher = [[Harry N. Abrams, Inc.]] | location = New York | url = http://www.abramsbooks.com | isbn = 0-8109-3442-6}}</ref>
 
Dva faktora odredila su sudbinu te regije u 16. vijeku. Prvi je bio ujedinjenje sa Španskim kraljevstvom 1496. kroz brak [[Philip I. Lijepi|Philipa Lijepog]] od [[vojvoda Burgundije|Burgundije]] i [[Juana I od Kastilje|Juane od Kastilje]]. Njihov sin, Karlo V., rođen u [[Gent]]u, naslijedio je najveće carstvo na svijetu, te je time [[Sedamnaest Provincija|Nizozemska]], iako istaknut dio carstva, postala ovisna o velikoj stranoj snazi.
Two factors determined the fate of the region in the 16th century. The first was the union with the kingdom of Spain through the 1496 marriage of [[Philip the Handsome]] of [[Duke of Burgundy|Burgundy]] and [[Juana of Castile]]. Their son, Charles V, born in [[Ghent]], would inherit the largest empire in the world, and the [[Seventeen Provinces|Netherlands]], although a prominent part of the empire, became dependent on a large foreign power.
 
ADrugi secondfaktor factoruključivao includedje religiousreligijske developmentsprocese. The [[MiddleSrednji Agesvijek]] gaveje waydao tonove newoblike modesreligioznog ofrazmišljanja. religious thinking.Praksa [[Devotio Moderna]] practices, forna exampleprimjer, werebila particularlyje strongnaročito insnažna theu regiontoj regiji, whiledok thesu 16th-century criticisms of thekritike [[Roman CatholicKatolička Churchcrkva|CatholicKatoličke Churchcrkve]] thatiz spread16. throughoutvijeka Europekoje alsosu reachedse theproširile Lowširom CountriesEvrope također zahvatile Nizozemske. [[Renaissancerenesansni humanismhumanizam|HumanistsHumanisti]] such aspoput [[ErasmusErazmo Roterdamski|DesideriusDesideriusa ErasmusErasmusa ofod RotterdamRotterdama]] werebili criticalsu butkritični, remainedali loyalostali toodani the churchcrkvi. HoweverMeđutim, the spread of theširenje [[Protestant Reformationreformacije]], startedkoje byje započeo [[Martin Luther]] in 1517. godine, eventuallyna ledkraju toje outrightdovelo war.do Theotvorenog rata. ReformationReformacija, particularlynaročito the ideas ofideje [[John Calvin|Johna Calvina]], gained significantdobile supportsu inznačajnu thepodršku Lowu CountriesNizozemskim, andte following the 1566nakon [[iconoclasmikonoklazam|iconoclasticizbijanja outbreaksikonoklazma]] Spain1566. attemptedŠpanija toje quellpokušala thezaustaviti tideprotok andi maintainodržati the authority of theautoritet [[Council ofTridentski Trentkoncil|post-Tridentineposttridentske]] Churchcrkve throughputem forcesile by installinguvevši [[Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Dukevojvoda ofAlbe|Fernanda Álvareza od AlbaToleda, vojvodu Albe]].<ref name="Kamen">{{cite book | last =Kamen | first = Henry | year = 2005 | title = Spain, 1469–1714, A Society of Conflict | edition = 3rd | publisher = Pearson Education | location = Harlow, United Kingdom | url = http://www.pearsoned.co.uk | isbn = 0-582-78464-6}}</ref> TheRepresija repressionkoja thatje followeduslijedila leddovela toje thedo [[Dutchholandska Revoltpobuna|holandske pobune]], the beginning of thepočetka [[Eightyosamdesetogodišnji Yearsrat|Osamdesetogodišnjeg Warrata]], andte the establishment of theosnivanja [[DutchNizozemska RepublicRepublika|Nizozemske Republike]] inu thesjevernim northern provincesprovincijama. SubsequentlyNakon toga, theJužna SouthernNizozemska Netherlandspostala becameje a bastion for theutvrda [[Counter Reformationkontrareformacije]], whiledok je [[Calvinismkalvinizam]] waspostao the main religion ofglavna thosereligija inonih powerna insnazi theu DutchNizozemskoj RepublicRepublici.
 
=== Utjecaj talijanske renesanse ===
[[Image:Holbein-erasmus.jpg|thumb|upright|[[ErasmusErazmo Roterdamski|Desiderius Erasmus]] in 1523. godine]]
Trade in the port of [[Bruges]] and the textile industry, mostly in Ghent, turned Flanders into the wealthiest part of Northern Europe at the end of the 15th century. The Burgundian court dwelled mostly in Bruges, Ghent and [[Brussels]]. The nobles and rich traders were able to commission artists, creating a class of highly skilled painters and musicians who were admired and requested around the continent.<ref name="Heughebaert">{{cite book | last = Heughebaert | first = H. |author2=Defoort, A. |author3=Van Der Donck, R. | year = 1998 | title = Artistieke opvoeding | publisher = Den Gulden Engel bvba. | location = Wommelgem, Belgium | isbn = 90-5035-222-7}}</ref>