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'''Također uraditi:'''German Renaissance, Renaissance in the Low Countries, Renaissance in Poland, Italian Renaissance, Portuguese Renaissance, Mid-Tudor Crisis, 19th-century London, History of London (1900–39)
 
{{renesansa}}
The '''Renaissance in the Low Countries''' was a cultural period in the [[Northern Renaissance]] that took place in around the 16th century in the [[Low Countries]] (corresponding to modern-day [[Belgium]], the [[Netherlands]] and [[French Flanders]]).
[[File:Albrecht Dürer - Portrait of Maximilian I - Google Art Project.jpg|thumb|right|265px|''[[Portrait of Emperor Maximilian I]]'' (reigned: 1493–1519), the first Renaissance monarch of the [[Holy Roman Empire]], by [[Albrecht Dürer]], 1519]]
[[File:Gutenberg bible Old Testament Epistle of St Jerome.jpg|thumb|First page of the first volume of a copy of the [[Gutenberg Bible]] in Texas]]
 
Culture in the Low Countries at the end of the 15th century was influenced by the [[Italian Renaissance]], through trade via [[Bruges]] which made Flanders wealthy. Its nobles commissioned artists who became known across Europe. In science, the [[Anatomy|anatomist]] [[Andreas Vesalius]] led the way; in [[cartography]], [[Gerardus Mercator]]'s map assisted explorers and navigators. In art, [[Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting]] went from the strange work of [[Hieronymus Bosch]] to the everyday life of [[Pieter Brueghel the Elder]]. In architecture, music and literature too, the culture of the Low Countries moved into the Renaissance style.
'''Njemačka renesansa''', dio [[sjevernoevropska renesansa|sjeverne renesanse]], bila je kulturološki i umjetnički pokret koji se proširio među [[njemačka|njemačkim]] misliocima u 15. i 16. vijeku i koji se razvio iz [[talijanska renesansa|talijanske renesanse]]. Mnoga područja umjetnosti i nauka bila su pod utjecajem, prije svega [[Renesansni humanizam u Sjevernoj Evropi|širenjem renesansnog humanizma u razne njemačke države i kneževine]]. Napravljeni su mnogi koraci naprijed u područjima arhitekture, umjetnosti i nauka. Njemačka je dovela do dvije pojave koje su dominirale 16. vijekom u čitavoj Evropi: štamparstvo i [[reformacija|protestantsku reformaciju]].
 
== Geopolitička situacija i pozadina ==
Jedan od najvažnijih njemačkih humanista bio je [[Conrad Celtes|Konrad Celtis]] (1459–1508). Celtis je studirao u [[Keln]]u i [[Heidelberg]]u, a kasnije je putovao čitavom Italijom prikupljajući latinske i grčke rukopise. Pod velikim utjecajem [[Tacit]]a, koristio je knjigu ''[[Germanija (knjiga)|Germania]]'' kako bi uveo [[historija Njemačke|njemačku historiju]] i geografiju. Na kraju je posvetio svoje vrijeme poeziji, gdje je hvalio Njemačku na latinskom jeziku. Još jedna važna ličnost bio je [[Johann Reuchlin]] (1455–1522) koji je studirao na različitim mjestima u Italiji i kasnije podučavao grčki jezik. Studirao je [[hebrejski jezik]], sa ciljem da pročisti kršćanstvo, ali je naišao na protivljenje crkve.
[[File:The Low Countries.png|thumb|Map showing the political situation in the Low Countries between 1556 and 1648.]]
In 1500 the [[Seventeen Provinces]] were in a personal union under the [[Burgundian Netherlands|Burgundian Dukes]], and with the [[County of Flanders|Flemish]] cities as centers of gravity, culturally and economically formed one of the richest parts of Europe. During the course of the century the region also experienced significant changes. The union with [[Spanish empire|Spain]] under [[Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor|Charles V]], [[Renaissance humanism|Humanism]] and [[Protestant Reformation|Reformation]] led to a rebellion against the Spanish rule and the start of the [[Eighty Years' War|religious war]]. By the end of the 16th century the northern and [[Southern Netherlands]] were effectively split. While this fracture was reflected in the visual arts by the [[Dutch Golden Age painting|Dutch Golden Age]] in the north and the [[Flemish Baroque painting|Flemish Baroque]] in the south, other areas of thought remained associated with 16th-century currents of [[Renaissance]] thought. Gradually, the balance of power shifted away from the Southern Netherlands, which remained under Spanish authority, to the emerging [[Dutch Republic]].<ref name="Janson">{{cite book | last = Janson | first = H.W. |author2=Janson, Anthony F. | year = 1997 | title = History of Art | edition = 5th, rev. | publisher = [[Harry N. Abrams, Inc.]] | location = New York | url = http://www.abramsbooks.com | isbn = 0-8109-3442-6}}</ref>
 
Two factors determined the fate of the region in the 16th century. The first was the union with the kingdom of Spain through the 1496 marriage of [[Philip the Handsome]] of [[Duke of Burgundy|Burgundy]] and [[Juana of Castile]]. Their son, Charles V, born in [[Ghent]], would inherit the largest empire in the world, and the [[Seventeen Provinces|Netherlands]], although a prominent part of the empire, became dependent on a large foreign power.
Najvažniji umjetnik njemačke renesanse je [[Albrecht Dürer]], naročito poznat po svojoj [[štampa|štampi]] u [[drvorez]]u i [[gravura|gravuri]], koja se proširila čitavom Evropom, crtežima i slikanim portretima. U važnu arhitekturu iz ovog perioda spadaju [[rezidencija Landshut]], [[zamak Heidelberg]], [[Augsburška gradska vijećnica]] kao i [[Antiquarium]] od [[rezidencija Munich|rezidencije Munich]], najveća renesansna dvorana sjeverno od Alpa.<ref>[[Munich Residenz]]</ref>
 
A second factor included religious developments. The [[Middle Ages]] gave way to new modes of religious thinking. [[Devotio Moderna]] practices, for example, were particularly strong in the region, while the 16th-century criticisms of the [[Roman Catholic Church|Catholic Church]] that spread throughout Europe also reached the Low Countries. [[Renaissance humanism|Humanists]] such as [[Erasmus|Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam]] were critical but remained loyal to the church. However, the spread of the [[Protestant Reformation]], started by [[Martin Luther]] in 1517, eventually led to outright war. The Reformation, particularly the ideas of [[John Calvin]], gained significant support in the Low Countries, and following the 1566 [[iconoclasm|iconoclastic outbreaks]] Spain attempted to quell the tide and maintain the authority of the [[Council of Trent|post-Tridentine]] Church through force by installing [[Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alba]].<ref name="Kamen">{{cite book | last =Kamen | first = Henry | year = 2005 | title = Spain, 1469–1714, A Society of Conflict | edition = 3rd | publisher = Pearson Education | location = Harlow, United Kingdom | url = http://www.pearsoned.co.uk | isbn = 0-582-78464-6}}</ref> The repression that followed led to the [[Dutch Revolt]], the beginning of the [[Eighty Years War]], and the establishment of the [[Dutch Republic]] in the northern provinces. Subsequently, the Southern Netherlands became a bastion for the [[Counter Reformation]], while [[Calvinism]] was the main religion of those in power in the Dutch Republic.
== Pozadina ==
[[Renesansa]] je većinom vođena obnovljenim interesom za klasično učenje i također je bila rezultat brzog ekonomskog razvoja. Na početku 16. vijeka, Njemačka (što se odnosi na zemlje sadržane unutar Svetog Rimskog Carstva) je bila jedno od najprosperitetnijih područja u Evropi unatoč relativno niskom nivou urbanizacije u usporedbi sa Italijom i Nizozemskom.<ref>''German economic growth, 1500–1850'', Ulrich Pfister</ref> Imala je koristi od bogatstva određenih sektora poput metalurgije, rudarstva, bankarstva i tekstila. Još važnije, štampanje knjiga razvilo se u Njemačkoj i [[globalno širenje štamparske mašine|njemački štampači dominirali]] su novom trgovinom knjigama u većini drugih država do duboko u 16. vijeku.
 
=== Utjecaj talijanske renesanse ===
== Umjetnost ==
[[Image:Holbein-erasmus.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Erasmus|Desiderius Erasmus]] in 1523]]
[[File:HMF Duerer Gruenewald Harrich Heller-Altar DSC 6312.jpg|thumb|The Heller altar by [[Albrecht Dürer]]]]
Trade in the port of [[Bruges]] and the textile industry, mostly in Ghent, turned Flanders into the wealthiest part of Northern Europe at the end of the 15th century. The Burgundian court dwelled mostly in Bruges, Ghent and [[Brussels]]. The nobles and rich traders were able to commission artists, creating a class of highly skilled painters and musicians who were admired and requested around the continent.<ref name="Heughebaert">{{cite book | last = Heughebaert | first = H. |author2=Defoort, A. |author3=Van Der Donck, R. | year = 1998 | title = Artistieke opvoeding | publisher = Den Gulden Engel bvba. | location = Wommelgem, Belgium | isbn = 90-5035-222-7}}</ref>
Koncept sjeverne renesanse ili njemačke renesanse donekle je pomućen nastavljanjem upotrebe složenih gotičkih ukrasa sve do kasno u 16. vijeku, čak i u djelima koja su bez sumnje renesansna u načinu na koji tretiraju ljudsku figuru i u drugim pogledima. Klasični ukras imao je malo odjeka u većini Njemačke, ali u drugim pogledima Njemačka je vrlo brzo slijedila pojave, naročito u usvajanju [[štampa]]nja sa pokretnim matricama slova, što je bio njemački izum koji je ostao u njemačkom monopolu nekoliko decenija i bio je [[globalno širenje štamparske mašine|prvi uveden u većini Evrope]], uključujući Francusku i Italiju, od strane Nijemaca.
 
This led to frequent exchanges between the Low Countries and Northern Italy. Examples are Italian architects [[Tommaso Vincidor]] and [[Alessandro Pasqualini]], who worked in the Low Countries for most of their careers, Flemish painter [[Jan Gossaert]], whose visit to Italy in 1508 in the company of [[Philip of Burgundy, Bishop of Utrecht|Philip of Burgundy]] left a deep impression,<ref name="Janson"/> musician [[Adrian Willaert]] who made [[Venice]] into the most important musical centre of its time<ref name="Heughebaert"/> (see [[Venetian School (music)|Venetian School]]) and [[Giambologna]], a Flemish sculptor who spent his most productive years in [[Florence]].
[[Gravura]] [[drvorez]]om i [[graviranje]]m već je bilo više razvijeno u Njemačkoj i [[nizozemske|Nizozemskim]] nego drugdje u Evropi, a Nijemci su vodili u razvijanju književnih ilustracija, obično relativno niskog umjetničkog standarda, ali prisutnih u čitavoj Evropi, sa drvenim pločama koje su se često izdavale štamparima izdanja u drugim gradovima ili jezicima. Najveći umjetnik njemačke renesanse, [[Albrecht Dürer]], počeo je svoju karijeru kao šegrt u vodećoj radionici u Nurembergu, koja je pripadala [[Michael Wolgemut|Michaelu Wolgemutu]], koji je većinom odustao od slikarstva kako bi iskoristio novi medij. Dürer je radio na najsloženije ilustriranoj knjizi tog perioda, [[Nirnberški ljetopis|Nirnberškom ljetopisu]], objavljenoj od strane njegovog kuma [[Anton Koberger|Antona Kobergera]], najvećeg štampara-izdavača Evrope u to doba.<ref name="Bartrum 2002">Bartrum (2002)</ref>
 
Before 1500, the Italian Renaissance had little or no influence above the Alps. After this we begin to see Renaissance influences, but unlike the Italian Renaissance, Gothic elements remain important. The revival of the classical period is also not a central theme like in Italy, the "rebirth" shows itself more as a return to nature and earthly beauty.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
Završivši svoje šegrtovanje 1490. godine, Dürer je putovao u Njemačkoj četiri godine, te u Italiji nekoliko mjeseci, prije osnivanja vlastite radionice u Nurembergu. Brzo je postao poznat u čitavoj Evropi po svojim energičnim i uravnoteženim drvorezima i gravurama, dok je uz to bio i slikar. Iako je zadržao prepoznatljivo njemački stil, njegov rad pokazuje snažan talijanski utjecaj i često se uzima da predstavlja početak njemačke renesanse u vizuelnim umjetnostima, koja je tokom sljedećih četrdeset godina zamijenila Nizozemsku i Francusku kao područje stvaranja najvećih inovacija u sjevernoevropskoj umjetnosti. Dürer je podržavao [[Martin Luther|Martina Luthera]], ali je nastavio stvarati [[Madonna (umjetnost)|Madone]] i ostale katoličke slike, te slikati portrete vođa obije strane nastajućeg razdora [[reformacija|protestantske reformacije]].<ref name="Bartrum 2002" />
[[File:Mathis Gothart Grünewald 022.jpg|The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ|right|thumb|''The [[Crucifixion]]'', central panel of the [[Isenheim Altarpiece]] by [[Matthias Grünewald]].|left]]
 
== Renesansa u Nizozemskim ==
Dürer je preminuo 1528. godine, prije nego što je postalo očito da je podjela usljed reformacije postala trajna, ali njegovi učenici sljedećih generacija nisu bili u prilici ne birati strane. Većina vodećih njemačkih umjetnika postali su protestanti, ali ih je to lišilo slikanja većine religijskih djela, koja su prethodno bila glavnina prihoda umjetnika. [[Martin Luther]] se protivio većini katoličkog slikarskog izlaganja, ali ne i samom slikarskom izlaganju, a [[Lucas Cranach Stariji]], Lutherov blizak prijatelj, naslikao je niz "luteranskih oltarnih djela", koja su većinom prikazivala [[posljednja večera|Posljednju večeru]], neka sa portretima vodećih protestantskih duhovnih lica kao [[apostoli|Dvanaest apostola]]. Ta faza luteranske umjetnosti završila je prije 1550. godine, vjerojatno pod snažnije [[anikonizam|anikonskim]] utjecajem [[kalvinizam|kalvinizma]], te su se religijska djela za javno izlaganje maltene prestala stvarati u protestantskim područjima. Pretpostavljajući većinom zbog toga, razvoj njemačke umjetnosti maltene je prekinut do oko 1550. godine, ali u prethodnim decenijama njemački umjetnici su bili vrlo plodni u razvijanju alternativnih predmeta za zamjenu praznine u svojim knjigama narudžbe. Cranach je, pored portreta, razvio format tankih vertikalnih portreta provokativnih obnaženih tijela, sa klasičnim ili biblijskim nazivima.<ref>Snyder, Part III, Ch. XIX on Cranach, Luther etc.</ref>
 
=== Umjetnost ===
Malo izvan tih razvoja ležao je [[Matthias Grünewald]], koji je ostavio vrlo malo djela iza sebe, ali čije se remek-djelo, ''[[Isenheimski oltar]]'' (završen 1515. godine), smatra najvećom njemačkom renesansnom slikom, kada se vratila u pažnju kritičara u 19. vijeku. To je intenzivno emocionalno djelo koje nastavlja njemačku gotičku tradiciju neograničenih gesta i izražaja, koristeći renesansne principe kompozicije, ali sve u najviše gotičkoj od svih formi, višekrilnom [[triptih]]u.<ref>Snyder, Ch. XVII</ref>
{{main|Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting}}
[[File:Albrecht Altdorfer 007.jpg|thumb|220px|left|[[Albrecht Altdorfer]] (c.1480–1538), ''Danube landscape near Regensburg'' c. 1528, one of the earliest Western pure landscapes, from the [[Danube school|Danube School]] in southern [[Germany]].]]
[[Image:Hieronymus Bosch - The Garden of Earthly Delights - Hell.jpg|thumb|upright|''Hell'', the right panel from the triptych ''[[The Garden of Earthly Delights]]'' by [[Hieronymus Bosch]]]]
[[Image:Bruegel, Pieter de Oude - De val van icarus - hi res.jpg|thumb|250px|left|''[[Landscape with the Fall of Icarus]]'' after [[Pieter Bruegel the Elder]]]]
[[Early Netherlandish Painting|15th-century painting in the Low Countries]] still shows strong religious influences, contrary to the Germanic painting. Even after 1500, when Renaissance influences begin to show, the influence of the masters from the previous century leads to a largely religious and narrative style of painting.
 
The first painter showing the marks of the new era is [[Hieronymus Bosch]]. His work is strange and full of seemingly irrational imagery, making it difficult to interpret.<ref name="Janson"/> Most of all it seems surprisingly modern, introducing a world of dreams that highly contrasts with the traditional style of the Flemish masters of his day.
[[Dunavska škola]] je naziv kruga umjetnika prve trećine 16. vijeka u [[bavarija|Bavariji]] i Austriji, među koje spadaju [[Albrecht Altdorfer]], [[Wolf Huber]] i [[Augustin Hirschvogel]]. Sa Altdorferom kao vođom, ta škola je stvorila prve primjere neovisne [[pejzaž (likovni)]] na Zapadu (gotovo 1000 godina poslije Kine), i u slikarstvu i u štampi.<ref>Wood, 9 – ovo je glavna tema čitave knjige</ref> Njihove religijske slike imale su [[ekspresionizam|ekspresionistički]] stil donekle sličan Grünewaldovom. Dürerovi učenici [[Hans Burgkmair]] i [[Hans Baldung Grien]] radili su većinom u štampi, dok je Baldung razvio tematički predmet [[vještica]] u nekoliko enigmatičnih otisaka.<ref>Snyder, Ch. XVII, Bartrum, 1995</ref>
 
After 1550 the Flemish and Dutch painters begin to show more interest in nature and in beauty ''an sich'', leading to a style that incorporates Renaissance elements, but remains very far from the elegant lightness of Italian Renaissance art,<ref name="Heughebaert"/> and directly leads to the themes of the great Flemish and Dutch [[Baroque]] painters: landscapes, still lifes and genre painting - scenes from everyday life.<ref name="Janson"/>
[[Hans Holbein Stariji]] i njegov brat Sigismund Holbein slikali su religijska djela u kasnom gotičkom stilu. Hans Stariji bio je pionir i vođa u transformaciji njemačke umjetnosti iz gotičkog u renesansni stil. Njegov sin, [[Hans Holbein Mlađi]], bio je važan slikar portreta i nekolicine religijskih djela, koji je većinom radio u Engleskoj i Švicarskoj. Holbeinov poznati niz malih drvoreza o temi ''[[Danse Macabre|Plesa smrti]]'' odnose se na djela [[Mali majstori|Malih majstora]], grupe štampara koji su se specijalizirali za vrlo malene i izrazito detaljne gravure za buržoaske skupljače, sa čestim erotičnim temama.<ref>Snyder, Ch. XX on the Holbeins, Bartrum (1995), 221–237 o Holbeinovim otiscima, 99–129 o Malim majstorima</ref>
 
This evolution is seen in the works of [[Joachim Patinir]] and [[Pieter Aertsen]], but the true genius among these painters was [[Pieter Brueghel the Elder]], well known for his depictions of nature and everyday life, showing a preference for the natural condition of man, choosing to depict the peasant instead of the prince.
Nakon izuzetnog postignuća u prvoj polovini 16. vijeka uslijedilo je nekoliko decenija izvanrednog odsustva pažnje vrijedne njemačke umjetnosti, mimo dobrih portreta koji se nikada nisu mogli takmičiti sa postignućem Holbeina ili Dürera. Idući važni njemački umjetnici radili su u prilično umjetnom stilu [[sjeverni manirizam|sjevernog manirizma]], kojeg su morali naučiti u Italiji ili Flandriji. [[Hans von Aachen]] i nizozemski [[Bartholomeus Spranger]] bili su vodeći slikari na carskim dvorovima u [[Beč]]u i Pragu, a produktivna graverska nizozemska [[porodica Sadeler]] proširila se Njemačkom, među drugim okruzima.<ref>Trevor-Roper, Levey</ref>
 
The ''[[Landscape with the Fall of Icarus]]'', now thought to be an early copy, combines several elements of northern Renaissance painting. It hints at the renewed interest for antiquity (the [[Icarus (mythology)|Icarus]] legend), but the hero Icarus is hidden away in the background. The main actors in the painting are nature itself and, most prominently, the peasant, who does not even look up from his plough when Icarus falls. Brueghel shows man as an anti-hero, comical and sometimes grotesque.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
U katoličkim dijelovima južne Njemačke gotička tradicija drvoreza nastavila je cvjetati do kraja 18. vijeka, prilagodivši se promjenama u stilu kroz vijekove. [[Veit Stoss]] (preminuo 1533. godine), [[Tilman Riemenschneider]] (preminuo 1531. godine) i [[Peter Vischer Stariji]] (preminuo 1529. godine) bili su Dürerovi savremenici i njihove duge karijere obuhvatile su prelaz sa gotičkog u renesansni period, iako su njihovi ukrasi često ostajali gotički čak i nakon što su im kompozicije počele odražavati renesansne principe.<ref>Snyder, 298–311</ref>
 
=== Arhitektura i skulptura ===
As in painting, Renaissance architecture took some time to reach the High Countries, and did not entirely supplant the Gothic elements. The most important sculptor in the Southern Netherlands was [[Giambologna]], who spent most of his career in Italy. An architect directly influenced by the Italian masters was [[Cornelis Floris de Vriendt]], who designed the [[Antwerp City Hall|city hall of Antwerp]], finished in 1564.
[[File:Heidelberg - Heidelberg Schloss 2015-09-11 19-23-06.JPG|thumb|[[Heidelberg Castle]]]]
[[File:Juleum Helmstedt.jpg|thumb|[[University of Helmstedt|Juleum]] in [[Helmstedt]] (built 1592), an example of [[Weser Renaissance]] architecture]]
 
[[File: Well of Moses at CMArt (Cropped).JPG|thumb|left|200px|Sluter, ''The Well of Moses'', 1395-1405]]In sculpture, however, 15th-century Flemish artists, while adhering to Christian subjects, developed techniques and a naturalistic style which compares favorably to the work of early-Renaissance Italian contemporaries such as [[Donatello]]. [[Claus Sluter]] (fl. ~1400) produced works such as the [[Well of Moses]] with a dynamism almost unknown at the turn of the 15th century; and Dutch-born [[Nikolaus Gerhaert]] van Leyden (b. ~1420) made sculptures such as "Man Meditating" which even today appear more "modern" than does Italian Quattrocento carving. [[File:Nicolaus von Leyden, Self-portrait2.JPG|thumb|right|200px|Gerhaert, ''Man Meditating'', 1467]]
[[Renesansna arhitektura]] u Njemačkoj bila je nadahnuta prvim njemačkim filozofima i umjetnicima poput [[Albrecht Dürer|Albrechta Dürera]] i [[Johannes Reuchlin|Johannesa Reuchlina]] koji su posjetili Italiju. Važni rani primjeri tog perioda su posebno [[rezidencija Landshut]], [[zamak Heidelberg|zamak]] u [[Heidelberg]]u, [[zamak Johannisburg|palača Johannisburg]] u [[Aschaffenburg]]u, [[zamak Weilburg]], [[Augsburška gradska vijećnica|gradska vijećnica]] i [[palače Fuggera|kuće Fuggera]] u [[Augsburg]]u, te [[Crkva sv. Mihajla, München|sv. Mihajlo]] u [[München]]u, najveća renesansna crkva sjeverno od Alpa.
 
In the early-17th-century [[Dutch Republic]], [[Hendrick de Keyser]] plays an important role in developing the [[Amsterdam Renaissance]] style, not slavishly following the classical style but incorporating many decorative elements, giving a result that could also be categorized as [[Mannerism]]. [[Hans Vredeman de Vries]] was another important name, primarily as a garden architect.
Specifičan oblik renesansne arhitekture u Njemačkoj je [[Weserska renesansa]], sa istaknutim primjerima kao što su [[gradska vijećnica u Bremenu|gradska vijećnica]] u [[Bremen]]u i [[Univerzitet u Helmstedtu|Juleum]] u [[Helmstedt]]u.
 
=== Muzika ===
U julu 1567. gradsko vijeće [[Keln]]a podržalo je dizajn u renesansnom stilu Wilhelma Vernukkena za dvospratne ''loggia'' za [[gradska vijećnica u Kelnu|gradsku vijećnicu u Kelnu]]. [[Michaelskirche (München)|Sv. Mihajlo]] u [[München]]u je najveća renesansna crkva sjeverno od Alpa. Izgrađena je od strane [[William V., vojvoda Bavarije|vojvode Williama V]] od [[Bavarije]] između 1583. i 1597. godine kao duhovni centar za [[kontrareformacija|kontrareformaciju]] i nadahnuta je crkvom [[crkva il Gesù|il Gesù]] u Rimu. Arhitekt je nepoznat. Mnogi primjeri [[popis renesansnih građevina od cigle|renesansnih građevina od cigle]] mogu se pronaći u starim gradovima [[Hanza|Hanze]], kao što su [[Stralsund]], [[Wismar]], [[Lübeck]], [[Lüneburg]], [[Friedrichstadt]] i [[Stade]]. U spomena vrijedne njemačke renesansne arhitekte spadaju [[Friedrich Sustris]], [[Benedikt Rejt]], [[Abraham van den Blocke]], [[Elias Holl]] i [[Hans Krumpper]].
{{main|Franco-Flemish School}}
[[Image:Orlando de Lassus2.jpg|thumb|left|[[Orlande de Lassus]] leading a chamber ensemble, painted by [[Hans Mielich]]]]
While in painting, the Low Countries were leading Northern Europe, in music the [[Dutch School (music)|"Franco-Flemish" or "Dutch School"]] dominated all of Europe. In the early Renaissance, [[Polyphony|polyphonic]] musicians and composers from the Low Countries, like [[Johannes Ciconia]], were working at all the European courts and churches. Educated in the church and cathedral schools of their own region, they spread out and would bring their style to the whole continent, so that by the late renaissance a unified musical style emerged throughout Europe.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
 
Although there is no reference to antiquity, there is a clear Flemish "Renaissance consciousness", as indicated by the words of Flemish theorist [[Johannes Tinctoris]], who said of these composers: ''"Although it is beyond belief, nothing worth listening to had been composed before their time."''.<ref name="Janson"/>
== Utjecajni ljudi ==
 
Renaissance elements in the music are the return from the "divine origin" of music to earthly beauty and sensory joy. The music becomes more structured, balanced and melodic. Whereas in the Middle Ages the choice of instruments was free, composers now start to organize instruments into homogenous groups, and write music specifically for certain arrangements.<ref name="Heughebaert"/>
=== Johannes Gutenberg (c. 1398–1468) ===
Rođen kao Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden,<ref>[http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07090a.htm Johann Gutenberg] pri [[Novoj katoličkoj enciklopediji|Nova katolička enciklopedija]]</ref> [[Johannes Gutenberg]] se naširoko smatra najutjecajnijom osobom u njemačkoj renesansi. Kao slobodni mislilac, humanista i izumitelj, Gutenberg je također odrastao u renesansi, ali je i snažno utjecao na nju. Njegov najpoznatiji izum je [[štamparska mašina]] iz 1440. godine. Gutenbergova mašina omogućila je humanistima, reformistima i ostalima da šire svoje ideje. Također je poznat i kao stvoritelj [[Gutenberg Biblija|Gutenbergova Biblija]], ključnog djela koje je označilo početak "[[štamparska mašina|Gutenbergove revolucije]]" i doba štampane knjige u [[zapadni svijet|zapadnom svijetu]].
 
[[Josquin des Prez]] was the most celebrated composer during the [[High Renaissance]], and during his career enjoyed the patronage of three popes. Equally at ease in secular and religious music, he can be considered the first musical genius we know of.<ref name="Janson"/>
=== Johann Reuchlin (1455–1522) ===
[[Johann Reuchlin]] bio je svojedobno najvažniji aspekt podučavanja o svjetskoj kulturi u Njemačkoj. Bio je poznavalac i njemačkog i hebrejskog jezika. Poslije diplomiranja podučavao je u Baselu, te je smatran izuzetno inteligentnim. Ipak, nakon što je napustio Basel, morao je početi kopirati rukopise i naukovati unutar pojedinih područja prava. Međutim, najpoznatiji je po svom radu unutar istraživanja hebrejskog jezika. Za razliku od nekih drugih "mislilaca" svog vremena, Reuchlin se udubio u tu materiju i čak stvorio vodič za propovijedanje unutar hebrejske vjere. Ta knjiga, zvana ''De Arte Predicandi'' (1503), moguće je jedno od njegovih najpoznatijih djela iz tog perioda.
 
Other important composers from the Low Countries were [[Guillaume Dufay]], [[Johannes Ockeghem]], [[Jacob Clemens non Papa]] and [[Adrian Willaert]]. [[Orlande de Lassus]], a Fleming who had lived in Italy as a youth and spent most of his career in [[Munich]], was the leading composer of the late Renaissance.
=== Albrecht Dürer (1471–1528) ===
[[Albrecht Dürer]] bio je u to doba, te je i ostao, najpoznatiji umjetnik njemačke renesanse. Bio je poznat širom Evrope, te veoma cijenjen u Italiji, gdje je njegov rad bio poznat uglavnom kroz njegovu [[Old master print|štampu]]. Uspješno je integrirao složen sjevernjački stil sa renesansnom harmonijom i monunmentalnošću. Među njegovim najpoznatijim djelima su ''[[Melanholija I]]'', ''Četiri jahača'' iz njegovog [[drvorez]]ne serije ''[[Apokalipsa (Dürer)|Apokalipsa]]'', te ''Vitez, Smrt i Vrag''. Drugi značajni umjetnici bili su [[Lucas Cranach Stariji]], [[Dunavska škola]] i [[Mali majstori]].
 
=== Martin Luther (1483–1546)Književnost ===
{{see also|Dutch Renaissance and Golden Age literature}}
[[Martin Luther]]<ref name="Plass">{{cite book |last=Plass |first= Ewald M. |chapter=Monasticism |title=What Luther Says: An Anthology |location=St. Louis |publisher=Concordia Publishing House |year=1959 |volume=2 |page=964 |ref=harv}}</ref> je bio protestantski [[reformacija|reformator]] koji je kritizirao crkvene prakse poput prodavanja indulgencija, protiv kojih je pisao u svojih [[Devedeset pet teza|''Devedeset pet teza'']] 1517. godine. Luther je također preveo [[Lutherova Biblija|Bibliju]] na njemački jezik, učinivši kršćanske spise dostupnijima općoj populaciji i nadahnuvši standardizaciju njemačkog jezika.
[[File:0 Antwerp town hall (1).JPG|250px|thumb|right|[[Antwerp City Hall]] (finished in 1564)]]
In the middle of the 16th century, a group of [[Chamber of rhetoric|rhetoricians]] (see [[Medieval Dutch literature]]) in [[Duchy of Brabant|Brabant]] and [[Flanders]] attempted to put new life into the stereotyped forms of the preceding age by introducing in original composition the new-found branches of [[Latin language|Latin]] and [[Ancient Greek language|Greek]] poetry. The leader of these men was [[Johan Baptista Houwaert]], who was led by an unbounded love of classical and mythological fancy.<ref name="brittanica">{{EB1911 |inline=1 |last=Gosse |first=Edmund William |wstitle=Dutch Literature#Houwaert. |display=Dutch Literature § Houwaert |volume=8 |page=721}}</ref>
 
The most important genre was music publishing, especially [[psalms]]. The [[Souterliedekens]] publication is one of the most important sources for the reconstruction of Renaissance folksongs. Later publishing was heavily influenced by the rebellion against the Spanish: heroic battle songs and political ballads ridiculing the Spanish occupants.
== Povezano ==
* [[Renesansni humanizam u Sjevernoj Evropi]]
 
Best remembered of the writers is [[Philips van Marnix, lord of Sint-Aldegonde]], who was one of the leading spirits in the war of Dutch independence. He wrote a [[satire]] on the Roman Catholic Church, started to work on a [[Bible]] translation and allegedly wrote the lyrics to the [[Het Wilhelmus|Dutch national anthem]].
== Reference ==
{{reflist|2}}
 
Other important names are [[Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert]], [[Hendrick Laurensz. Spieghel]] and [[Roemer Visscher]]. Inevitably, their works and career were very much determined by the struggle between Reformation and the Catholic Church.
=== Izvori ===
{{Refbegin|40em}}
* [[Giulia Bartrum|Bartrum, Giulia]] (1995); ''German Renaissance Prints, 1490–1550''; British Museum Press, 1995, {{ISBN|0-7141-2604-7}}
* Bartrum, Giulia (2002), ''Albrecht Dürer and his legacy: the graphic work of a Renaissance artist'', British Museum Press, 2002, {{ISBN|978-0-7141-2633-3}}
* [[Michael Levey]], ''Painting at Court'', Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1971
* Snyder, James; ''Northern Renaissance Art'', 1985, Harry N. Abrams, {{ISBN|0-13-623596-4}}
* [[Hugh Trevor-Roper|Trevor-Roper, Hugh]]; ''Princes and Artists, Patronage and Ideology at Four Habsburg Courts 1517–1633'', Thames & Hudson, London, 1976, {{ISBN|0-500-23232-6}}
* Wood, Christopher S. Albrecht Altdorfer and the Origins of Landscape, 1993, Reaktion Books, London, {{ISBN|0-948462-46-9}}
{{Refend}}
 
=== Dalje čitanjeNauka ===
[[Image:MercatormapFullEurope16thcentury.jpg|thumb|left|260px|[[Gerardus Mercator]]'s map of Europe, 1554]]
*{{cite book |editor-last=O'Neill |editor-first=John P. |editor-link= <!-- NONE: DO NOT LINK -->|title=The Renaissance in the North | location=New York | publisher=The Metropolitan Museum of Art | date=1987 |isbn=0-87099-434-4 |oclc=893699130
The new age presents itself in science as well. Flemish [[Anatomy|anatomist]] [[Andreas Vesalius]]'s life typically shows both the new possibilities and the troubles that came with them. He delivered ground-breaking work in rediscovering the human body, after centuries of disregard for it. This earned him great respect from some, but also caused several enquiries into his methods (dissection of the human body) and the religious implications of his work.
|url=http://libmma.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/ref/collection/p15324coll10/id/113542}}
 
While Vesalius performed ground-breaking work in rediscovering the human body, [[Gerardus Mercator]], as one of the leading [[cartography|cartographers]] of his time, did the same for rediscovering the outside world. Mercator too came into trouble with the Church because of his beliefs, and spent several months in jail after a conviction for [[heresy]].
== Vanjske poveznice ==
 
{{Commonscat|position=left|Renaissance in Germany}}
Both scientists' lives show how the Renaissance scientist is not afraid of challenging what has been taken for granted for centuries, and how this leads to problems with the all-powerful catholic church.
 
Though the invention of the printing press by [[Laurens Janszoon Coster]] in the 1430s appears to be a romantic notion, the Low Countries had an early start in printing. By 1470 a printing press was in use in [[Utrecht (city)|Utrecht]], where the first dated extant book was printed in 1473, while the first book in the Dutch language was the 1477 [[Delft]] Bible. By 1481 the Low Countries had printing shops in 21 cities and towns.<ref>E. L. Eisenstein: The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe, Cambridge, 1993 pp.13–17, quoted in: [[Angus Maddison]]: Growth and Interaction in the World Economy: The Roots of Modernity, Washington 2005, p.17f.</ref> Famous publishing houses like those of [[Christoffel Plantijn]] in [[Antwerp]] from 1555 on, [[Petrus Phalesius the Elder]] in [[Leuven]] from 1553, and the [[House of Elzevir]] in [[Leiden]] from around 1580 turned the Low Countries into a regional center of publishing.
 
== Povezano ==
{{commonscat|Renaissance in Belgium}}
{{commonscat|Renaissance in the Netherlands}}
 
=== Politička situacija ===
* [[Burgundian Netherlands]]
* [[Seventeen Provinces]]
* [[Dutch Republic]] – [[Dutch Golden Age]]
* [[Southern Netherlands]]
* [[Eighty Years' War]]
 
=== Umjetnost ===
* [[Early Netherlandish Painting]]
* [[Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting]]
* [[Flemish painting]]
* [[Dutch School (music)]]
* [[Dutch Renaissance and Golden Age literature]]
* [[List of Flemish painters]]
* [[List of Dutch painters]]
 
== Reference ==
{{Reflist}}