Razlike između izmjena na stranici "Galen"

Dodano 22.239 bajtova ,  prije 2 godine
širenje :D
m/м (Bot: popravljanje preusmjeravanja)
(širenje :D)
 
{{Infokutija biografija
[[Datoteka:Galen detail.jpg|thumb|250px|Claude Galien. Litografija. Pierre Roche Vigneron. (Pariz: Lith de Gregoire et Deneux, oko 1865.)]]
| ime = Galen iz Pergama
| slika = Galenus.jpg
| opis_slike = Osamnaestovekovni portret od DŽordža Pola Baša
| datum_rođenja = septembar 129.
| mesto_rođenja = [[Pergam|Pergam]]
| datum_smrti = {{c.|lk=no}} 210
| nacionalnost = [[Grci|Grk]]
| zanimanje = [[Filozofija]]
}}
[[Datoteka:Galen detail.jpg|mini|200p|Galen]]
'''Aelije Galen''' ili '''Klaudije Galen''' ({{lang-el|Κλαύδιος Γαληνός}}; septembar [[129]] – {{circa|200}} / {{circa|216}}), češto [[Anglicizam|anglicizmički]] '''Galen''' ili poznatiji kao '''Galen iz Pergama''',<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/galen|title=Galen (Definition and Meaning)|last=|first=|date=|website=Collinsdictionary.com|publisher=|language=en|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=7. 3. 2018}}</ref> bio je poznati [[Rimsko carstvo|grčki]] [[ljekar|lekar]] i [[Filozofija|filozof]] u [[Rimsko carstvo|rimskom carstvu]].<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/39981348|title=Life, death, and entertainment in the Roman Empire|last=Stone|first=Potter David|last2=J.|first2=Mattingly, D.|date=1999|publisher=University of Michigan Press|year=|isbn=0472085689|location=Ann Arbor|publication-place=|pages=|type=|oclc=39981348}}</ref><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/12724204|title=Galen on bloodletting: A study of the origins, development, and validity of his opinions, with a translation of the three works|last=Peter|first=Brain|date=1986|publisher=Cambridge University Press|year=|isbn=0521320852|location=Cambridge|publication-place=|pages=|type=|oclc=12724204}}</ref><ref name=":0">{{Cite journal|last=Nutton|first=Vivian|date=1973|title=The Chronology of Galen's Early Career|url=https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/classical-quarterly/article/chronology-of-galens-early-career/CAD86BC140062E9768D457A047BB1B95|journal=The Classical Quarterly|language=en|volume=23|issue=1|pages=158–171|doi=10.1017/s0009838800036600|issn=1471-6844|pmid=|access-date=|via=}}</ref> Jedan je od najuspešnijih medicinskih instraživača iz [[Antika|antike]], koji je uticao na razvoj različitih naučnih disciplina, uključijući [[Anatomija|anatomiju]],<ref>{{cite journal|title=Galen on the affected parts. Translation from the Greek text with explanatory notes|journal=Med Hist|volume=21|issue=2|page=212|doi=10.1017/s0025727300037935|pmc=1081972}}</ref> [[Fiziologija|fiziologiju]], [[Patologija|patologiju]],<ref name="brock">Arthur John Brock (translator), ''Introduction. Galen. On the Natural Faculties''. Edinburgh 1916</ref> [[Farmakologija|farmakologiju]]<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=al9FH5tynlAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=galen+on+pharmacology&source=bl&ots=q9JZ5JRP2D&sig=bBRFNdLCu4aeyJVj0EKpStKbcRU&hl=en&ei=ytfVS9b6A4LO8wSSoO20Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CB8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false|title=Galen on Pharmacology: Philosophy, History, and Medicine : Proceedings of the Vth International Galen Colloquium, Lille, 16-18 March 1995|last=Debru|first=Armelle|date=1997|publisher=BRILL|isbn=9004104038|language=fr}}</ref> i [[Neurologija|neurologiju]], kao i [[Filozofija|filozofiju]]<ref name="Galen on the brain">{{Cite book|url=https://www.amazon.com/Galen-Brain-Physiological-Speculation-Multilingual/dp/9004125124|title=Galen on the Brain: Anatomical Knowledge and Physiological Speculation in the Second Century Ad|last=Rocca|first=Dr Julius|date=16. 1. 2003|publisher=Brill|year=|isbn=9789004125124|edition=1.|location=Leiden|publication-place=|pages=|language=|type=}}</ref> i [[Logika|logiku]].
 
Na Galenovo razumevanje anatomije i [[Medicina|medicine]] primarno je uticala tadašnja teorija [[humor]]a (poznatog i kao četiri humora – crni žuč, žuti žuč, krv i flegm), kao što su napredovali stari grčki lekari poput [[Hipokrat sa Kosa|Hipokrata]]. NJegove teorije su imale veliki uticaj na zapadnu medicinu više od 1.300 godina. Galenov opis [[anatomija|anatomske građe]] zasnivao se na seciranju [[majmun]]a, a posebno [[Berberski makaki|berberskih makaka]] i svinja, jer seciranje ljudi nije bilo dopušteno u njegovo doba. Ipak, niko ga nije nadmašilo sve do štampanih opisa i ilustracija ljudske anatomije koje je napravio [[Andreas Vezalijus]] u svom delu ''-{De humani corporis fabrica}-'' u [[1543]],<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HCA6wGaU8PUC&pg=PA422|title=Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, 1514-1564|last=O'Malley|first=Charles Donald|publisher=University of California Press|year=1964|id=GGKEY:ZJZ6NKBQQ2U}}</ref><ref name="Vesalius1543">{{cite book|url=http://vesalius.northwestern.edu/|title=De humani corporis fabrica, Libri VII|author=Andreas|first=Vesalius|publisher=Johannes Oporinus|year=1543|isbn=|location=Basel, Switzerland|publication-place=|pages=|language=|type=|accessdate=7. 8. 2010}}</ref> gde je Galenova fiziološka teorija primenjena na ova nova opažanja.<ref>Siraisi, Nancy G (1991) Girolamo C''ardano and the Art of Medical Narrative'', Journal of the History of Ideas. pp. 587–88.</ref> Galenova teorija fiziologije cirkulativnog sistema ostala je neosporna do [[1221]]. godine, kada je Ibn al-Nafis objavio svoju enciklopediju medicine pod nazivom ''-{As-Shamil fi Tibb}-'', u kojoj je prijavio otkriće [[Plućna cirkulacija krvi|plućne cirkulacije]].<ref>{{cite journal|last=Abdel-Halim|first=Rabie E.|date=|year=2008|title=Contributions of Ibn Al-Nafis (1210–1288 AD) to the progress of medicine and urology. A study and translations from his medical works|url=http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/contributions-of-ibn-al-nafis|journal=Saudi Medical Journal|volume=29|issue=1|pages=13–22|accessdate=24. 2. 2018|via=}}</ref>
'''Aelije Galen''' ili '''Klaudije Galen''' (129. – 200. n. e.), poznatiji kao '''Galen iz [[Pergam]]a''' ([[grčki jezik|grčki]]: Γαληνός, ''Galēnos''), bio je istaknut [[Rimsko Carstvo|rimski]] liječnik i filozof grčkog podrijetla i vjerojatno najveći medicinski znanstvenik rimskog razdoblja. Njegove su teorije imale velik utjecaj na [[Zapadni svijet|zapadnjačku]] [[medicina|medicinu]] duže od jednog tisućljeća. Njegov opis medicinske [[anatomija|anatomije]] zasnivao se na majmunima, budući da [[razudba]] ljudi nije bila dopuštena u njegovo doba, ali ništa ga nije nadmašilo sve do tiskanih opisa i ilustracija ljudske razudbe koje je napravio [[Andreas Vesalius]] 1543.<ref>O'Malley, C., ''Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, 1514-1564'', Berkeley: University of California Press</ref> Galenov opis rada [[srce|srca]], [[arterija]] i [[vena]] održao se sve do 1628., kad je [[William Harvey]] opisao krvotok gdje je srce pogonska pumpa.<ref> Furley, D, i J. Wilkie, 1984, ''Galen On Respiration and the Arteries'', Princeton University Press, te Bylebyl, J (ur.), 1979, ''William Harvey and His Age'', Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press</ref> U 19. stoljeću, studenti medicine još su čitali Galena da nauče neke pojmove. Galen je izvršio mnoge pokuse s podvezivanjem [[živac]]a da potkrijepi teoriju, koja stoji i danas, da [[mozak]] upravlja svim pokretima [[mišići|mišića]] putem [[središnji živčani sustav|središnjeg]] i [[periferni živčani sustav|perifernog živčanog sustava]].<ref>Frampton, M., 2008, ''Embodiments of Will: Anatomical and Physiological Theories of Voluntary Animal Motionfrom Greek Antiquity to the Latin Middle Ages, 400 B.C.–A.D. 1300'', Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag. str. 180 - 323</ref> Galen je napisao djelce naslovljeno "O tome da je najbolji liječnik ujedno i filozof"<ref>Brian, P., 1979, "Galen on the ideal of the physician", ''South Africa Medical Journal, 52: 936-938</ref>, kakvim je smatrao i sebe, što znači da je liječničku praksu utemeljio u teoretski čvrstom znanju odnosno "filozofiji", kako se tada zvalo. Galen se jako zanimao za spor između liječničkih škola racionalizma i [[empirizam|empirizma]],<ref>Frede, M. and R. Walzer, 1985, ''Three Treatises on the Nature of Science,'' Indianapolis: Hacket.</ref> a njegova primjena izravnog promatranja, razudbe i [[vivisekcija|vivisekcije]] u liječničkoj obuci te kao temelj za liječničku praksu može se smatrati kombinacijom oba pristupa i krčenjem složenijeg, istančanijeg srednjeg puta koji izbjegava nevolje svakog od njih pojedinačno.<ref>De Lacy, P., 1972, "Galen's Platonism", ''American Journal of Philosophy,'' str. 27-39, Cosans, C., 1997, “Galen’s Critique of Rationalist and Empiricist Anatomy”, ''Journal of the History of Biology,'' 30: 35-54, i Cosans, C., 1998, “The Experimental Foundations of Galen’s Teleology”, ''Studies in History and Philosophy of Science,'' 29: 63-80. </ref>
 
Galen je sebe video kao lekara i filozofa, kako je napisao u njegovom delu pod naslovom ''Najbolji lekar je takođe i filozof''.<ref>{{cite book|title="That the best physician is also a philosopher" with a Modern Greek Translation|author=Claudii Galeni Pergameni|publisher=Odysseas Hatzopoulos & Company: Kaktos Editions|year=1992|editor=Odysseas Hatzopoulos|location=[[Athens]], [[Greece]]}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Theodore J.|first=Drizis|date=2008|title=Medical ethics in a writing of Galen|url=http://hrcak.srce.hr/file/64672|journal=Acta Med Hist Adriat|volume=6|issue=2|pages=333–336|pmid=20102254|accessdate=7. 8. 2010|via=}}</ref><ref>Brian, P (1977). ''Galen on the ideal of the physician'', South Africa Medical Journal, 52: 936–938 [http://archive.samj.org.za/1977%20VOL%20LI%20Jul-Dec/Articles/11%20November/4.10%20HISTORY%20OF%20MEDICINE%20-%20GALEN%20ON%20THE%20IDEAL%20OF%20THE%20PHYSICIAN.%20P.%20Brain.pdf pdf]</ref> Galen je bio veoma zainteresovan za debatu između [[Racionalizam|racionalističkih]] i [[Empirizam|empiricističkih]] medicinskih sekti,<ref>Frede, M; Walzer, R. (1985). ''Three Treatises on the Nature of Science,'' Indianapolis: Hacket.</ref> i njegova primena neposrednog posmatranja, seciranja i vivisekcije u obuci studenata smatra se kombinacijom različitih pristupa.<ref>{{cite journal|author=De Lacy P|year=1972|title=Galen's Platonism|url=|journal=American Journal of Philosophy|volume=1972|issue=|pages=27–39|doi=10.2307/292898}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Cosans C|year=1997|title=Galen's Critique of Rationalist and Empiricist Anatomy|url=|journal=Journal of the History of Biology|volume=30|issue=|pages=35–54|doi=10.1023/a:1004266427468|pmid=11618979}}</ref><ref>{{cite journal|author=Cosans C|year=1998|title=The Experimental Foundations of Galen's Teleology|url=|journal=Studies in History and Philosophy of Science|volume=29|issue=|pages=63–80|doi=10.1016/s0039-3681(96)00005-2}}</ref> Zbog toga se njegovo objašnjenje pojma bolesti naziva ''sintetička koncepcija bolesti''.<ref>Jovan Maksimović: ''Uvod u medicinu sa teorijom medicine'', Novi Sad 2001.</ref> Mnoga od njegovih dela su sačuvani i / ili prevedena sa originalnog grčkog jezika, mada su mnoga uništena i neka koja mu se pripisuju smatraju se lažnim. Iako postoji debata o datumu njegove smrti, on nije bio mlađi od sedamdeset godina kada je umro.
Galen je o [[хришћанин|hrišćanima]] govorio da su zbog svoga prezira prema smrti i zbog svoje [[askeza|askeze]] sposobni da vode život [[filozof]]a, ali im je prigovorio lakovjernost.<ref name="Šagi-Bunić">[http://www.scribd.com/doc/60958056/Tomislav-J-%C5%A0agi-Buni%C4%87-Povijest-kr%C5%A1%C4%87anske-literature-svezak-I Tomislav J. Šagi-Bunić - Povijest kršćanske literature (svezak I)] (scribd)</ref>
 
U [[Srednji vek|srednjovekovnoj]] Evropi Galenove spise o anatomiji postale su nosilac univerzitetskog kurikuluma srednjovekovnog lekara, ali zbog propasti [[Zapadno rimsko carstvo|Zapadnog rimskog carstva]] oni su veoma pretrpeli zastoj i intelektualnu stagnaciju. Međutim, u [[Vizantijsko carstvo|Istočnom rimskom carstvu]] i [[Abasidski kalifat|Abasidskom kalifatu]] nastavili su da se proučavaju i prate. Neke Galenove zamisli nisu bile su tačne: on nije secirao ljudsko telo.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xqS1wz_0_DUC&pg=PA222|title=Medieval Medicine: A Reader|author=Faith Wallis|year=2010|pages=14, 26, 222}}</ref> Grčki i rimski tabui značili su da je seciranje obično zabranjeni u starim vremenima, ali se u srednjem veku to promenilo: medicinski nastavnici i učenici u [[Bolonja|Bolonji]] su počeli da seciraju ljudska tela, a Mondino de Luzi (oko 1275–1326) je napravila prvi poznati udžbenik anatomije zasnovan na ljudskom seciranju.<ref>{{cite book|url=http://www.hup.harvard.edu/catalog.php?isbn=9780674057418|title=Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and Religion|last=Numbers|first=Ronald|publisher=Harvard University Press|year=2009|isbn=978- 0- 674- 03327- 6|pages=45}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2011/04/debunking-a-myth/|title=Debunking a Myth|last=|first=|date=7. 4. 2011|work=Harvard Gazette|access-date=7. 3. 2018|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|language=en}}</ref>
== Izvori ==
 
{{izvori}}
Galenov opis rada [[srce|srca]], [[arterija]] i [[vena]] održao se sve do [[1628]], kada je [[Vilijam Harvi]] opisao [[cirkulatorni sistem čoveka|krvotok]] sa srcem kao pogonskom pumpom.<ref>Furley, D, i J. Wilkie, 1984, ''Galen On Respiration and the Arteries'', Princeton University Press, te Bylebyl, J (ur.), 1979, ''William Harvey and His Age'', Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press</ref> Galen je izvršio brojne [[eksperiment]]e sa podvezivanjem [[živac]]a kako bi potkrepio teoriju, koja važi i danas, da [[mozak]] upravlja svim pokretima [[mišićno tkivo|mišića]] preko [[centralni nervni sistem|centralnog]] i [[periferni nervni sistem|perifernog nervnog sistema]].<ref>Frampton, M (2008). ''Embodiments of Will: Anatomical and Physiological Theories of Voluntary Animal Motionfrom Greek Antiquity to the Latin Middle Ages, 400 B.C.–A.D. 1300'', Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag. str. 180—323</ref>
 
Galenovi originalni grčki tekstovi su u ranom modernom periodu postali obnovljeni. Tokom [[1530-e|1530-ih]] [[Belgija|belgijski]] anatomist i lekar [[Andreas Vezalijus]] preuzeo je projekat da prevede Galenove grčke tekstove na [[Latinski jezik|latinski]]. Najslavnije delo Vezalijusa, ''-{De humani corporis fabrica}-'', bio je pod velikim uticajem Galenskog pisma i oblika.<ref>Peter Dear, ''Revolutionizing the Sciences: European Knowledge and Its Ambitions, 1500–1700.'' (2001), 37–39.</ref>
 
== Rani život 129–161. ==
[[File:Galenou Apanta.tif|thumb|''Galenou Apanta'', 1538]]
Galenovo ime {{lang|grc|Γαληνός}}, {{lang|el-Latin|Galēnos}} potiče od prideva {{lang|grc|γαληνός}} — „mirno”.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.04.0057:entry=galhno/s|title=A Greek-English Lexicon|last=|first=|date=|website=Perseus.tufts.edu|publisher=|language=|archive-url=|archive-date=|access-date=7. 3. 2018}}</ref>
 
Galen opisuje svoj rani život u delu „Na osećanja uma”. Rođen je u septembru 129;<ref name="nutton73">{{cite journal|author=Nutton Vivian|year=1973|title=The Chronology of Galen's Early Career|url=|journal=Classical Quarterly|volume=23|issue=1|pages=158–171|doi=10.1017/S0009838800036600|pmid=11624046}}</ref> njegov otac, Aelius Nikon, bio je imućan [[Plemstvo|plemić]], [[arhitekta]] i graditelj, sa eklektičnim interesima, uključujući filozofiju, matematiku, logiku, astronomiju, [[Poljoprivreda|poljoprivredu]] i [[književnost]]. Galen opisuje svog oca kao „vrlo društvenog, pravednog, dobrog i blagonaklonog čoveka”. U to vreme [[Pergam|Pergam]] (savremena Bergama, [[Turska]]) bio je glavni kulturni i intelektualni centar, koji je zabeležen po svojoj biblioteci (druga biblioteka je u [[Aleksandrija|Aleksandriji]]),<ref name="brock" /><ref>{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/7113164|title=New Testament studies: Philological, Versional, and Patristic|last=Metzger|first=Bruce Manning|date=|publisher=Brill|year=1980|isbn=9004061630|location=Leiden|publication-place=|pages=|type=|oclc=7113164}}</ref> koji je privukao filozofe [[Stoicizam|Stoika]] i [[Platonizam|Platona]], kojima je Galen bio izložen u 14 godini. NJegove studije su prikazale svaki od glavnih filozofskih sistema tog vremena, uključujući Aristotelski i [[Epikurejstvo|Epikurejski]]. NJegov otac je planirao tradicionalnu karijeru za Galena u filozofiji ili [[Politika|politici]] i vodio je računa da ga izloži književnim i filozofskim uticajima. Međutim, Galen navodi da je oko 145. godine njegov otac imao san u kome se pojavio bog [[Asklepije]] i naredio Nikonu da pošalje svog sina na studije medicine. Nakon njegovog ranijeg liberalnog obrazovanja, u 16 ​​časova počeo je studije u prestižnom lokalnom svetilištu ili Asklepijeumu posvećenom Asklepiju, bogu medicine, kao θεραπευτής (terapeuti ili poslužitelj) tokom četiri godine. Tamo je došao uticajem ljudi nalik [[Ešrion Pergamona]], Stratonikusa i Satirusa. Asklepijea je funkcionisala kao banja ili sanitarija na koju bi bolesni došli da traže usluge sveštenstva. Rimljani su često posećivali hram u Pergamu u potrazi za medicinskom pomoću od bolesti i oboljenja. To je bio i progon poznatih osoba kao što je Klaudius Čaraks (istoričar), Aelius Aristida (govornik), Polemon i Kaspius Rafinus Konzul.<ref name=":0" />
 
== Reference ==
{{reflist}}
 
== Literatura ==
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{Cite book |ref= harv|last=O'Malley|first=Charles Donald|title=Andreas Vesalius of Brussels, 1514-1564|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=HCA6wGaU8PUC&pg=PA422|year=1964|publisher=University of California Press|id=GGKEY:ZJZ6NKBQQ2U}}
* Algra K (ed.) ''The Cambridge History of Hellenistic Philosophy''. Cambridge University Press, 2005. {{ISBN|0-521-25028-5}}, {{ISBN|978-0-521-25028-3}}
* [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2175042 Boudon-Millot V (ed. and trans.) ''Galien: Introduction générale; Sur l'ordre de ses propres livres; Sur ses propres livres; Que l'excellent médecin est aussi philosophe''] Paris: Les Belles Lettres. 2007, {{ISBN|978-2-251-00536-2}}
* [http://www.iep.utm.edu/g/galen.htm Boylen M. Galen. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]
* [[Kai Brodersen|Brodersen K.]] ''Galenos, Die verbrannte Bibliothek: Peri Alypias''. Marix, Wiesbaden 2015, {{ISBN|978-3-7374-0962-9}}
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=al9FH5tynlAC Debru A. "Galen on Pharmacology: Philosophy, History, and Medicine : Proceedings of the Vth International Galen Colloquium", Lille, 16–18 March 1995 BRILL 1997] {{ISBN|90-04-10403-8}}, {{ISBN|978-90-04-10403-7}}
* [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=12937057 Dunn PM. ''Galen (AD 129–200) of Pergamun: anatomist and experimental physiologist''. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2003 Sep;88(5):F441-3.]
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=X8eyqsqFgQ8C Everson S. (ed.) ''Language''. Cambridge University Press, 1994] {{ISBN|0-521-35795-0}}, {{ISBN|978-0-521-35795-1}}
*[https://books.google.com/books?id=Hf1htsj-usAC French RK. ''Medicine Before Science: The Rational and Learned Doctor from the Middle Ages to the Enlightenment''. Cambridge University Press, 2003.] {{ISBN|0-521-00761-5}}, {{ISBN|978-0-521-00761-0}}
* [http://www.princeton.edu/~pswpc/pdfs/gleason/010702.pdf Gleason MW. ''Shock and Awe: The Performance Dimension of Galen’s Anatomy Demonstrations''. Princeton/Stanford Working Papers in Classics January 2007]
* Gleason MW. ''Making Men: Sophists and Self-Presentation in Ancient Rome''. Princeton 1995
* [http://www.cambridge.org/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521819541 Hankinson RJ (ed.) The Cambridge Companion to Galen. CUP 2008] {{ISBN|978-0-521-81954-1}}
* Hankinson R.J. ''Cause and explanation in ancient Greek thought''. Oxford University Press, 1998 {{ISBN|0-19-924656-4}}, {{ISBN|978-0-19-924656-4}}
* [[Johannes Ilberg]]. "Aus Galens Praxis. Neue Jahrbücher für das Klassische Altertum", Geschichte und Deutsche Literatur 15: 276–312, 1905
* [[Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman]] (ed.). ''Jawami Kitab Al-Nabd Al-Saghir by Galen'' (2007), [http://www.ibnsinaacademy.org Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences], Aligarh, India; {{ISBN|978-81-901362-7-3}}
* Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (ed.). ''Kitab fi Firaq al Tibb by Galen'' (2008), [http://www.ibnsinaacademy.org Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences], Aligarh, India; {{ISBN|978-81-906070-1-8}}
* Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (ed.). ''Kitab al Anasir by Galen'' (2008), [http://www.ibnsinaacademy.org Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences], Aligarh, India; {{ISBN|978-81-906070-2-5}}
* Hakim Syed Zillur Rahman (ed.). ''Kitab al Mizaj of Galen'' (2008), [http://www.ibnsinaacademy.org Ibn Sina Academy of Medieval Medicine & Sciences], Aligarh, India; {{ISBN|978-81-906070-3-2}}
* Kotrc RF, Walters KR. "A bibliography of the Galenic Corpus. A newly researched list and arrangement of the titles of the treatises extant in Greek, Latin, and Arabic". Trans Stud Coll Physicians Phila. 1979 December;1(4):256–304
* [http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/bulletin_of_the_history_of_medicine/v073/73.1mattern.html Mattern SP. Physicians and the Roman Imperial Aristocracy: The Patronage of Therapeutics. Bulletin of the History of Medicine. Volume 73, Number 1, Spring 1999, pp. 1–18]
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=NrEeAAAAIAAJ Metzger BM. New Testament Studies: Philological, Versional, and Patristic. BRILL 1980] {{ISBN|90-04-06163-0}}, {{ISBN|978-90-04-06163-7}}
* [http://www.al-islam.org/al-tawhid/medical_sects/title.htm Muhaqqiq M. Medical Sects in Islam. al-Tawhid Islamic Journal, vol. VIII, No.2]
* Nutton V. "Roman Medicine, 250 BC to AD 200, and Medicine in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages", in Lawrence C.(ed.) ''The Western Medical Tradition: 800–1800 A.D.'' 1995
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=oShfkIhduowC Nutton V. ''Ancient Medicine''. Routledge, 2004] {{ISBN|0-415-08611-6}}, {{ISBN|978-0-415-08611-0}}
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=lzO3zQ3dK0cC Osler W. ''The Evolution of Modern Medicine'' 1913. Plain Label Books 1987. Chapter II: Greek Medicine]
* Peterson DW. "Observations on the chronology of the Galenic Corpus". Bull Hist Med 51(3): 484, 1977
* Siegel RE. ''Galen's System of Physiology and Medicine'', Basel 1968 (this text is not regarded highly by most Galen scholars)
* Siegel RE. ''Galen on Sense Perception, His Doctrines, Observations and Experiments on Vision, Hearing, Smell, Taste, Touch and Pain, and Their Historical Sources''. Karger, Basel 1970 (this text is not regarded highly by most Galen scholars)
* Siegel RE. ''Galen on Psychology, Psychopathology, and Function and Diseases of the Nervous System'' 1973 (this text is not regarded highly by most Galen scholars)
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=wJ4YAAAAIAAJ Smith WG. ''Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology''. J Walton 1849]
* Stakelum JW, ''Galen and the Logic of Proposition'', Rome, Angelicum, 1940
* Taylor HO. ''Greek Biology And Medicine''. Marshall Jones 1922. Chapter 5: The Final System – Galen
* [[Oswei Temkin|Temkin O.]] ''Galenism: Rise and Decline of a Medical Philosophy''. Cornell University Press, Ithaca 1973
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=mhNUGgG2eacC ''The Cambridge Ancient History'': Second Edition. XI The High Empire A.D. 70–192 Cambridge University Press, 2000] {{ISBN|0-521-26335-2}}, {{ISBN|978-0-521-26335-1}}
* [http://www.tlg.uci.edu/ ''Thesaurus Linguae Graecae'': TLG]
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=Aesg-6eBWCYC van der Eijk P. ''Medicine and Philosophy in Classical Antiquity: Doctors and Philosophers on Nature, Soul, Health and Disease''. Cambridge University Press, 2005] {{ISBN|0-521-81800-1}}, {{ISBN|978-0-521-81800-1}}
* [https://books.google.com/books?id=jGk8AAAAIAAJ Watson PB. ''Marcus Aurelius Antoninus''. Harper & brothers, 1884]
* {{cite book|last=Gilbert|first=N W.|title=Renaissance Concepts of Method|year=1960|publisher=Columbia University Press|location=New York}}
* C. Gill, T. Whitmarsh, and J. Wilkins (eds), ''Galen and the World of Knowledge'' (New York and Cambridge, 2009) (Greek Cultures in the Roman World).
* {{cite book|editor1-last=Kudlien|editor1-first=Fridolf|editor2-last=Durling|editor2-first=Richard J.|title=Galen's method of healing : proceedings of the 1982 Galen Symposium|year=1991|publisher=Brill|location=Leiden|isbn=90-04-09272-2}}
* {{cite book|last=Lloyd|first=G.E.R.|title=Methods and problems in Greek science|year=1991|publisher=Cambridge University Press|location=Cambridge|isbn=0-521-37419-7}}
* {{cite book|author=Mattern, Susan P. |title=The Prince of Medicine: Galen in the Roman Empire|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8t3fGNpA3PEC|year=2013}}, a standardscholarly biography
* {{cite book|last=Sarton|first=George|title=Galen of Pergamon|year=1954|publisher=University of Kansas Press|location=Lawrence, KS}}
 
=== Primarni izvori ===
*{{cite book|last=Brock|first=Arthur John|title=Greek Medicine, Being Extracts Illustrative of Medical Writers from Hippocrates to Galen|year=1929|publisher=Dent|location=London}}
*{{cite book|last=Galen|title=On the therapeutic method|year=1991|publisher=Clarendon Press|location=Oxford|isbn=0-19-824494-0|others= R.J. Hankinson, trans}}
*{{cite book|last=Walzer|first=Richard|title=Galen on Jews and Christians|year=1949|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=London}}
{{refend}}
 
== Bibliografija ==
{{refbegin}}
* Garcia Ballester, Luis. 2002. G''alen and Galenism. Theory and Medical Practice from Antiquity to the European Renaissance.'' Collected Studies Series 710. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Variorum.
* Gilbert, N. Ward. 1960. ''Renaissance Concepts of Method.'' New York: Columbia University Press.
* Gill, Christopher, Tim Whitmarsh, and John Wilkins, eds. 2012. ''Galen and the World of Knowledge.'' Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univ. Press.
* Kudlien, Fridolf, and Richard J Durling. 1991. ''Galen's Method of Healing: Proceedings of the 1982 Galen Symposium.'' Leiden: E.J. Brill.
* Lloyd, G. E. R. 1991. ''Methods and Problems in Greek Science.'' Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Mattern, Susan P. 2013. ''The Prince of Medicine: Galen In the Roman Empire.'' New York: Oxford University Press.
* Nutton, Vivian. 2004. ''Ancient Medicine.'' London and New York: Routledge.
* Rocca, Julius. 2003. ''Galen on the Brain: Anatomical Knowledge and Physiological Speculation in the Second Century A.D.'' Studies in Ancient Medicine 26. Leiden, The Netherlands, and Boston: Brill.
* Rosen, Ralph M. 2013. “Galen on Poetic Testimony” In ''Writing Science: Medical and Mathematical Authorship in Ancient Greece.'' Edited by M. Asper, 177-189. Berlin: De Gruyter.
* Rosen, Ralph M. 2013. “Galen, Plato, and the Physiology of Eros." In ''Eros'' Edited by E. Sanders, C. Carey and N. Lowe, 111-27. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
* Sarton, George. 1954. ''Galen of Pergamon.'' Lawrence: University of Kansas Press.
* Walzer, Richard. 1949. ''Galen On Jews and Christians.'' London: Oxford University Press.
{{refend}}
 
== Spoljašnje veze ==
{{Commonscat|Galenus of Pergamum}}
{{refbegin|30em}}
* {{Gutenberg author | id=Galen | name=Galen}}
* {{Internet Archive author}}
* {{Internet Archive author |name=Claudius Galenus}}
* [http://www.iep.utm.edu/galen/ Galen] entry in the [[Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]]* [http://classicsindex.wikispaces.com/Galen Classicsindex: Galen]
* [http://cmg.bbaw.de/epubl/online/editionencmg_05.html ''Corpus Medicorum Graecorum'' editions online]
* [http://galen.bbaw.de/online-publications/hippokrates-und-galenbibliographie-fichtner Gerhard Fichtner, Galen bibliography]
* [http://www.healthsystem.virginia.edu/internet/library/historical/artifacts/antiqua/galen.cfm University of Virginia: Health Sciences Library. Galen]
* [http://www.channel4.com/history/microsites/H/history/a-b/ancientsurgery7.html Channel 4 – History – Ancient surgery]
* [http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi2097.htm Lienhard JH. Engines of our Ingenuity, Number 2097 – Constantine the African]
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-223895/Galen-of-Pergamum Nutton V. Galen of Pergamum, Encyclopædia Britannica]
* [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/bio_gal.html Pearcy L. Galen: A biographical sketch. Medicina Antiqua]
* [https://web.archive.org/web/20070406023427/http://www.ancientlibrary.com/medicine/0109.html Taylor HO. Greek Biology and Medicine 1922: Chapter 5 – "The Final System: Galen"]
* [http://robl.de/galen/galen.htm Galenus von Pergamon – Leben und Werk. ''Includes alphabetical list of Latin Titles'']
* [http://www.biusante.parisdescartes.fr/histmed/medica/galien_vf.htm Galien's works]
* [http://digital.slub-dresden.de/id337794197 Galeni opera varia – Mscr.Dresd.Db.93]
* [http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~ucgajpd/medicina%20antiqua/mm_hypertexts.html Hypertexts – Medicina Antiqua, University College London]
* [http://www.michaelservetusresearch.com/ENGLISH/works.html Michael Servetus Research]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b03c4dys ''Discussion of Galens on BBC Radio 4's programme "In Our Time".]
* [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hbz:061:2-18076 Digital edition: Galeni septima Classis (1550)]
{{refend}}
 
{{Normativna kontrola}}
 
[[Kategorija:Antički Rim]]
79

izmjena