Veći su postojali raniji pokušaji reformiranja Rimokatoličke crkve, kao npr. oni [[Jan Hus|Jana Husa]], [[Peter Waldo|Petera Walda]], i [[John Wycliffe|Johna Wycliffea]], ali Martin Luther je općeprihvaćen kao glavni pokretač reformacije objavom svog djela ''[[Devedest pet teza]]'' 1517. godine. Luther je svoj pokret započeo kritikom prodaje [[indulgencija]], inzistirao je s iznošenjem teze da [[papa]] nema autoritet nad [[čistilište]]m i da katolička doktrina [[Treasury of Merit|merits of the saints]] nema temelja u evanđeljima. Protestantska će pozicija, međutim, donijeti promijene u doktrini kao što su ''[[sola scriptura]]'' i ''[[sola fide]]''. Osnovna motivacija ovih promjena bila je primarno [[teologija|teološke]] prirode, iako su mnogi drugi faktori imali bitnu ulogu, uključujući i pojavu [[nacionalizam|nacionalizma]], [[zapadni raskol]] s padom vjere u [[papinstvo]], osjećaj korupcije [[Kurija|Rimske kurije]], utjecaj [[humanizam|humanizma]] i pojavu novih učenja u [[renesansa|renesansi]] koja su dovodila u pitanje staru crkvenu tradiciju.
The initial movement within Germany diversified, and other reform impulses arose independently of Luther. The spread of [[Johannes Gutenberg|Gutenberg's]] [[printing press]] provided the means for the rapid dissemination of religious materials in the vernacular. The largest groups were the [[Lutheranism|Lutherans]] and [[Calvinism|Calvinists]]. Lutheran churches were founded mostly in Germany, the Baltics and Scandinavia, while the Reformed ones were founded in Switzerland, Hungary, France, the Netherlands and Scotland. The new movement influenced the [[Church of England]] decisively after 1547 under [[Edward VI of England|Edward VI]] and [[Elizabeth I of England|Elizabeth I]], although the Church of England had been [[English Reformation|made independent]] under [[Henry VIII of England|Henry VIII]] in the early 1530s for political rather than religious reasons.
There were also reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the [[Radical Reformation]], which gave rise to the [[Anabaptist]], [[Moravian Church|Moravian]] and other [[Pietism|Pietistic]] movements. Radical Reformers, besides forming communities outside [[state religion|state sanction]], often employed more extreme doctrinal change, such as the rejection of the [[creed|tenets]] of the [[late Antiquity|late antique]] councils of [[First Council of Nicea|Nicaea]] and [[Council of Chalcedon|Chalcedon]].
The Roman Catholic Church responded with a [[Counter-Reformation]] initiated by the [[Council of Trent]]. Much work in battling [[Protestantism]] was done by the well-organised new order of the [[Society of Jesus|Jesuits]]. In general, [[Northern Europe]], with the exception of most of [[Ireland]], came under the influence of Protestantism. [[Southern Europe]] remained Roman Catholic, while [[Central Europe]] was a site of a fierce conflict, culminating in the [[Thirty Years' War]], which left it devastated.
==Počeci i rana historija==
History of Protestantism}}
The oldest Protestant churches, such as the [[Unity of the Brethren|Unitas Fratrum]] and [[Moravian Church]], date their origins to [[Jan Hus]] (John Huss) in the early 15th century. As it was led by a Bohemian noble majority, and recognised, for a time, by the Basel Compacts, the Hussite Reformation was Europe's first "[[Magisterial Reformation]]" because the ruling magistrates supported it, unlike the "[[Radical Reformation]]", which the state did not support.
The later Protestant Churches generally date their doctrinal separation from the Roman Catholic Church to the 16th century. The Reformation began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church, by priests who opposed what they perceived as false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice. They especially objected to the teaching and the sale of indulgences, and the abuses thereof, and to [[simony]], the selling and buying of clerical offices. The reformers saw these practices as evidence of the systemic corruption of the [[Hierarchy of the Catholic Church|Church's hierarchy]], which included the pope.
=== Raniji raskoli ===