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In a much more broad and general sense, one might, in fact, find European roots of Minimalism in the [[geometric abstraction]]s painters in the [[Bauhaus]], in the works of [[Piet Mondrian]] and other artists associated with the movement DeStijl, in [[Constructivism (art)|Russian Constructivists]] and in the work of the Romanian sculptor [[Constantin Brâncuși]]. American painters [[Larry Poons]], [[Ronald Davis]], [[Robert Mangold]], [[Brice Marden]] and even a more expressionist-oriented painter like [[Cy Twombly]] show a clear European influence in their ''pure'' abstraction, minimalist painting of the 1960s. Ronald Davis polyurethane works from the late 1960s pay homage to the ''Broken Glass'' of [[Marcel Duchamp]]''.
<!--[[File:Robert Mangold's acrylic and pencil 'X Within X Orange', 1981.jpg|thumb|left|160px|[[Robert Mangold]], 1981, [[Minimalism]]]]-->
This movement was heavily criticised by high modernist formalist art critics and historians. Some anxious critics thought Minimalist art represented a misunderstanding of the modern dialectic of painting and sculpture as defined by critic [[Clement Greenberg]], arguably the dominant American critic of painting in the period leading up to the 1960s. The most notable critique of Minimalism was produced by [[Michael Fried (Art Critic)|Michael Fried]], a Greenbergian critic, who objected to the work on the basis of its "theatricality". In ''Art and Objecthood'' (published in Artforum in June 1967) he declared that the Minimalist work of art, particularly Minimalist sculpture, was based on an engagement with the physicality of the spectator. He argued that work like Robert Morris's transformed the act of viewing into a type of [[spectacle]], in which the artifice of the act [[observation]] and the viewer's participation in the work were unveiled. Fried saw this displacement of the viewer's experience from an aesthetic engagement within, to an event outside of the artwork as a failure of Minimal art. Fried's opinionated essay was immediately challenged by artist [[Robert Smithson]] in a letter to the editor in the October issue of Artforum. Smithson stated the following: "What Fried fears most is the [[consciousness]] of what he is doing—namely being himself theatrical."
[[File:The Dylan Painting.jpg|thumb|160px|[[Brice Marden]], 1966/1986, [[Monochrome painting]]]]