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Neki od najznačajnijih slikara tog perioda su [[Eugène Delacroix]], [[Théodore Géricault]], [[J. M. W. Turner]], [[Caspar David Friedrich]] i [[John Constable]]. Kasni radovi [[Francisco Goya|Franciska Goye]] dokazuju njegov romantični interes prema iracionalnom, radovi [[Arnold Böcklin|Arnolda Böcklina]] evociraju misteriju, a slike [[James Abbott McNeill Whistler|Jamesa Wistlera]] pripadnika [[Esteticizam|esteticizma]] pobuđuju osjećaj sofisticiranosti i [[dekadencija|dekadencije]]. Tradicija slikanja pejzaža iz razdoblja romantizma u SAD-u je poznata kao [[Škola Hudson River]],<ref>{{cite web|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_5_40/ai_82469521 |title=Novack, Barbara '&#39;American Sublime'&#39; Artforum, 2002, retrieved 30 October 2008 |publisher=Findarticles.com |date= |accessdate=2014-08-08}}</ref> a njeni najistaknutiji predstavnici bili su [[Thomas Cole]], [[Frederic Edwin Church]], [[Albert Bierstadt]], [[Thomas Moran]] i [[John Frederick Kensett]]. [[Luminizam]] je bio američki pokret slikanja pejzaža vezan za Školu Hudson River.
 
Vodeći pripadnik [[Barbizonska škola|Barbizonske škole School]] slikanja [[Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot|Camille Corot]] slikao je koristeći i elemente romantizma i elemente [[Realizam|realizma]]; u njegovom radu postoje prve naznake [[impresionizam|impresionizma]], kao i u slikama [[Eugène Boudin|Eugènea Boudina]], prvog francuskog slikara pejzažista koji je slikao na otvorenom, izvan studija. Boudin je imao veliki utjecaj na mladog [[Claude Monet|Claudea Moneta]], kojega je 1857. uveo u slikanje [[plein air]]. Najzaslužniji slikar za prelazak u [[realizam]] sredinom 19. vijeka bio je [[Gustave Courbet]]. U zadnjoj su trećini stoljeća impresionisti [[Édouard Manet]], [[Claude Monet]], [[Pierre-Auguste Renoir]], [[Camille Pissarro]], [[Alfred Sisley]], [[Berthe Morisot]], [[Mary Cassatt]] i [[Edgar Degas]] radili na izravnijem pristupu nego je to bilo prije javno viđeno. TheyOni eschewedsu allegoryizbjegavali andalegoriju narrativei innarativne favorprikaze ofu individualizedkorist responsesindividualiziranog toodgovora thena modernmoderni worldsvijet, sometimesponekad paintednaslikanog withs littlemalo orili nobez preparatorypripremne studystudije, relying onoslanjajući deftnessse ofna drawingspretnost andcrtanja ai highlyvrlo chromatickromatične palettepalete. Manet, Degas, Renoir, Morisot, andi Cassatt concentratedkoncentrirali primarilysu onse theprimarno humanna subjectčovjeka. BothI Manet andi Degas reinterpretedsu classicalreinterpretirali figurativeklasične canonsfigurativne withinkanone contemporaryunutar situationssuvremenih situacija; inu Manet'sslučaju caseManeta theovu re-imaginingsje metreinterpretaciju withpublika hostileneprijateljski public receptiondočekala. Renoir, Morisot, andi Cassatt turnedsu tose domestickao lifeinspiracija forokrenuli inspirationkućnom životu, with Renoir focusingse onposebno thefokusirao femalena nudeženski [[akt]]. Monet, Pissarro, andi Sisley usedsu thekao landscapeprimarni asmotiv theirslikali primarypejzaže motif,u thenastojanju transienceda ofprikažu lightizmjenu andsvjetla weatheri playingvremenskih aprilika majorna rolescenu, inšto theirje work.igralo Whilecentralnu Sisleyulogu mostu closelynjihovom adheredradu. toDok these original principalsSisley ofstriktno thedržao Impressionistizvornim perceptionprincipima ofimpresionističke thepercepcije landscapepejzaža, Monet soughtje challengestražio inizazov increasinglyu chromaticsve andtežim changeablekromatskim conditionsuvjetima i uvjetima osvjetljenosti, culminatingkulminacija inčega hisje seriesbila ofnjegova monumentalserija worksmonumentalnih ofradova [[Watervodeni ljiljani|vodenih Liliesljiljana]] paintednaslikanih inu [[Giverny]]ju.
[[File:The Scream.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Edvard Munch]], 1893., earlyrani example ofprimjer [[Expressionismekpresionizam|ekspresionizma]]]]
Pissarro adoptedje someprihvatio ofneke theod experiments ofeksperimenata [[Post-Impressionismpostimpresionizam|postimpresionizma]]. Slightly younger Post-Impressionists like [[Vincent van Gogh]], [[Paul Gauguin]], and [[Georges-Pierre Seurat]], along with [[Paul Cézanne]] led art to the edge of [[modernism]]; for Gauguin Impressionism gave way to a personal symbolism; Seurat transformed Impressionism's broken color into a scientific optical study, structured on frieze-like
compositions; Van Gogh's turbulent method of paint application, coupled with a sonorous use of color, predicted [[Expressionism]] and [[Fauvism]], and Cézanne, desiring to unite classical composition with a revolutionary abstraction of natural forms, would come to be seen as a precursor of 20th-century art.
The spell of Impressionism was felt throughout the world, including in the United States, where it became integral to the painting of [[American Impressionists]] such as [[Childe Hassam]], [[John Henry Twachtman]], and [[Theodore Robinson]]. It also exerted influence on painters who were not primarily Impressionistic in theory, like the portrait and landscape painter [[John Singer Sargent]]. At the same time in America at the turn of the 20th century there existed a native and nearly insular realism, as richly embodied in the figurative work of [[Thomas Eakins]], the [[Ashcan School]], and the landscapes and seascapes of [[Winslow Homer]], all of whose paintings were deeply invested in the solidity of natural forms. The visionary landscape, a motive largely dependent on the ambiguity of the nocturne, found its advocates in [[Albert Pinkham Ryder]] and [[Ralph Albert Blakelock]].