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File:JEAN LOUIS THÉODORE GÉRICAULT - La Balsa de la Medusa (Museo del Louvre, 1818-19).jpg|[[Théodore Géricault]] 1819.
File:Caspar_David_Friedrich_-_Mondaufgang_am_Meer_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg|[[Caspar David Friedrich]] c. 1822.
File:Karl Brullov - The Last Day of Pompeii - Google Art Project.jpg| [[Karl BrullovBrjulov]] 1827.
File:Eugène Delacroix - La liberté guidant le peuple.jpg|[[Eugène Delacroix]], 1830.
File:The Fighting Temeraire, JMW Turner, National Gallery.jpg|[[J. M. W. Turner]] 1838.
File:Vincent Willem van Gogh 128.jpg|[[Vincent van Gogh]] 1888.
[[File:VanGogh-starry night.jpg|[[Vincent van Gogh]] 1889.
File:Ilja Jefimowitsch Repin 009.jpg|[[IlyaIlja Repin]] 1891.
File:ChelmonskiJozef.1896.Burza.jpg|[[Józef Chełmoński]] 1896.
File:Woher kommen wir Wer sind wir Wohin gehen wir.jpg|[[Paul Gauguin]] 1897–1898.
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Nakon [[rokoko]]a u kasnom se 18. vijeku pojavljuje strogi stil [[neoklasicizam]], najprije u arhitekturi, potom u slikarstvu. Vjerojatno najznačajniji predstavnici neoklasicizma su [[Jacques-Louis David]] i njegov nasljednik [[Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres]]. Ingresov rad sadrži mnogo senzualnosti, ali bez spontanosti karakteristične za [[romantizam]].
Romantizam je pak usmjerio svoju pažnju na pejzaže i prirodu kao i ljudski lik i superiornost prirodnog reda u odnosu na čovjekovu volju. ThereU istom asu se konceptu nalazili elementi [[pantheismpanteizam|pantheistpanteističke]] philosophyfilozofije (seevidi [[Baruch Spinoza|SpinozaSpinozu]] andi [[Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel|HegelHegela]]) withinkoji thissu conceptionse thatsuprotstavljali opposesidealima [[Age of EnlightenmentProsvjetiteljstvo|Enlightenmentprosvjetiteljstva]] idealsi bydonijeli seeingviziju mankind'ssudbine destinyčovječanstva inu atragičnijem morei tragicpesimističnom or pessimistic lightsvjetlu. TheIdeja ideada thatljudska humanbića beingsnisu aresuperiorna not above the forces ofsilama [[Naturepriroda|prirode]] isu inkontradikciji contradictionje tos idealima [[AncientAntička Grčka|Antičke GreekGrčke]] andi Renaissancerenesanse idealsprema wherekojima mankindje wasčovječanstvo abovebilo alliznad thingssvih andstvari ownedi hisdržalo fateu šaci vlastitu sudbinu. ThisOvo thinkingje ledrazmišljanje romanticpotaklo artistsslikare toromantizma depictda theslikaju [[Sublimation (psychology)|sublime]]"uzvišenost", ruinedruševine churchescrkvi, shipwrecksbrodolome, massacresmasakre andi madnessludilo.
 
Do sredine 19. vijeka slikari su se oslobodili potražnje naručitelja za prikazom scena iz religije, mitologije, portreta i historije. Ideja "umjetnost radi umjetnosti" započela je nalaziti svoj izražaj u radovima velikih slikara kao što su Francisco de Goya, John Constable i J.M.W. Turner. Slikari romantizma pretvorili su slikanje [[pejzaž]]a u vodeći žanr, pošto je isti do tada smatran minornim žanrom ili kao dekorativna pozadina za kompozicije ljudskim figurama.
By the mid-19th century painters became liberated from the demands of their patronage to only depict scenes from religion, mythology, portraiture or history. The idea "art for art's sake" began to find expression in the work of painters like Francisco de Goya, John Constable, and J.M.W. Turner. Romantic painters turned [[landscape painting]] into a major genre, considered until then as a minor genre or as a decorative background for figure compositions.
SomeNeki ofod thenajznačajnijih majorslikara painterstog ofperioda this period aresu [[Eugène Delacroix]], [[Théodore Géricault]], [[J. M. W. Turner]], [[Caspar David Friedrich]] andi [[John Constable]]. Kasni radovi [[Francisco Goya|Franciska Goye]]'s latedokazuju worknjegov demonstratesromantični theinteres Romanticprema interest in the irrationaliracionalnom, whiledok the work ofradovi [[Arnold Böcklin|Arnold Böcklin]] evokes mystery and the paintings of [[Aesthetic movement]] artist [[James Abbott McNeill Whistler]] evoke both sophistication and [[decadent movement|decadence]]. In the United States the Romantic tradition of landscape painting was known as the [[Hudson River School]]:<ref>{{cite web|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_5_40/ai_82469521 |title=Novack, Barbara '&#39;American Sublime'&#39; Artforum, 2002, retrieved 30 October 2008 |publisher=Findarticles.com |date= |accessdate=2014-08-08}}</ref> exponents include [[Thomas Cole]], [[Frederic Edwin Church]], [[Albert Bierstadt]], [[Thomas Moran]], and [[John Frederick Kensett]]. [[Luminism (American art style)|Luminism]] was a movement in American landscape painting related to the [[Hudson River School]].
 
The leading [[Barbizon School]] painter [[Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot|Camille Corot]] painted in both a romantic and a [[Realism (visual arts)|realistic]] vein; his work prefigures [[Impressionism]], as does the paintings of [[Eugène Boudin]] who was one of the first French landscape painters to paint outdoors. Boudin was also an important influence on the young [[Claude Monet]], whom in 1857 he introduced to [[Plein air]] painting. A major force in the turn towards [[Realism (visual arts)|Realism]] at mid-century was [[Gustave Courbet]]. In the latter third of the century Impressionists like [[Édouard Manet]], [[Claude Monet]], [[Pierre-Auguste Renoir]], [[Camille Pissarro]], [[Alfred Sisley]], [[Berthe Morisot]], [[Mary Cassatt]], and [[Edgar Degas]] worked in a more direct approach than had previously been exhibited publicly. They eschewed allegory and narrative in favor of individualized responses to the modern world, sometimes painted with little or no preparatory study, relying on deftness of drawing and a highly chromatic palette. Manet, Degas, Renoir, Morisot, and Cassatt concentrated primarily on the human subject. Both Manet and Degas reinterpreted classical figurative canons within contemporary situations; in Manet's case the re-imaginings met with hostile public reception. Renoir, Morisot, and Cassatt turned to domestic life for inspiration, with Renoir focusing on the female nude. Monet, Pissarro, and Sisley used the landscape as their primary motif, the transience of light and weather playing a major role in their work. While Sisley most closely adhered to the original principals of the Impressionist perception of the landscape, Monet sought challenges in increasingly chromatic and changeable conditions, culminating in his series of monumental works of [[Water Lilies]] painted in [[Giverny]].