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== Radna snaga ==
{{asGodine of|2011}}, the. [[International Labour Organization]] states that approximately one billion people, or over 1/3 of the available work force, are employed in the global agricultural sector. Agriculture constitutes approximately 70% of the global employment of children, and in many countries employs the largest percentage of women of any industry.<ref name=ILO/> The [[service sector]] only overtook the agricultural sector as the largest global employer in 2007. Between 1997 and 2007, the percentage of people employed in agriculture fell by over four percentage points, a trend that is expected to continue.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.financialexpress.com/news/story/191279|title=Services sector overtakes farming as world's biggest employer: ILO|author=AP|date=26 January 2007|accessdate=24 April 2013|publisher=''The Financial Express''}}</ref> The number of people employed in agriculture varies widely on a per-country basis, ranging from less than 2% in countries like the US and Canada to over 80% in many African nations.<ref name=LaborForce>{{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2048.html|title=Labor Force – By Occupation|publisher=Central Intelligence Agency|work=The World Factbook|accessdate=4 May 2013}}</ref> In developed countries, these figures are significantly lower than in previous centuries. During the 16th century in Europe, for example, between 55 and 75 percent of the population was engaged in agriculture, depending on the country. By the 19th century in Europe, this had dropped to between 35 and 65 percent.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://economics.ouls.ox.ac.uk/13621/1/uuid9ef3c3c6-512f-44b6-b74e-53266cc42ae2-ATTACHMENT01.pdf|format=PDF|title=Economic structure and agricultural productivity in Europe, 1300–1800|journal=European Review of Economic History|volume=3|pages=1–25|author=Allen, Robert C.}}</ref> In the same countries today, the figure is less than 10%.<ref name=LaborForce/>
 
=== Bezbednost ===
 
The International Labour Organization considers agriculture "one of the most hazardous of all economic sectors."<ref name=ILO>{{cite web|url=http://www.ilo.org/safework/info/standards-and-instruments/codes/WCMS_161135/lang--en/index.htm|title=Safety and health in agriculture|publisher=International Labour Organization|accessdate=24 April 2013|date=21 March 2011}}</ref> It estimates that the annual work-related death toll among agricultural employees is at least 170,000, twice the average rate of other jobs. In addition, incidences of death, injury and illness related to agricultural activities often go unreported.<ref name=ILO2>{{cite web|url=http://www.ilo.org/safework/areasofwork/hazardous-work/WCMS_110188/lang--en/index.htm|title=Agriculture: A hazardous work|publisher=International Labour Organization|accessdate=24 April 2013|date=15 June 2009}}</ref> The organization has developed the [[Safety and Health in Agriculture Convention, 2001]], which covers the range of risks in the agriculture occupation, the prevention of these risks and the role that individuals and organizations engaged in agriculture should play.<ref name=ILO/>
 
== Poljoprivredni proizvodni sistemi ==
 
=== Sistemi za kultivaciju useva ===
[[File:Paddy fields in India.jpg|thumb|Rice cultivation at a paddy field in [[Bihar]] state of India]]
[[File:Rice terraces.png|thumb|The [[Banaue Rice Terraces]] in [[Ifugao]], Philippines]]
Cropping systems vary among farms depending on the available resources and constraints; geography and climate of the farm; government policy; economic, social and political pressures; and the philosophy and culture of the farmer.<ref name="FAO FS">{{cite web|publisher=Food and Agriculture Organization|url=http://www.fao.org/farmingsystems/description_en.htm|title=Analysis of farming systems|accessdate=22 May 2013}}</ref><ref name="PCP APS">Acquaah, G. 2002. Agricultural Production Systems. pp. 283–317 in "Principles of Crop Production, Theories, Techniques and Technology". Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.</ref>
 
[[Shifting cultivation]] (or [[slash and burn]]) is a system in which forests are burnt, releasing nutrients to support cultivation of annual and then [[perennial plant|perennial]] crops for a period of several years.<ref name="CS">Chrispeels, M.J.; Sadava, D.E. 1994. "Farming Systems: Development, Productivity, and Sustainability". pp. 25–57 in ''Plants, Genes, and Agriculture''. Jones and Bartlett, Boston, MA.</ref> Then the plot is left fallow to regrow forest, and the farmer moves to a new plot, returning after many more years (10–20). This fallow period is shortened if population density grows, requiring the input of nutrients (fertilizer or [[manure]]) and some manual [[pest control]]. Annual cultivation is the next phase of intensity in which there is no fallow period. This requires even greater nutrient and pest control inputs.
 
Further industrialization led to the use of [[monoculture]]s, when one [[cultivar]] is planted on a large acreage. Because of the low [[biodiversity]], nutrient use is uniform and pests tend to build up, necessitating the greater use of [[pesticide]]s and fertilizers.<ref name="PCP APS"/> Multiple cropping, in which several crops are grown sequentially in one year, and [[intercropping]], when several crops are grown at the same time, are other kinds of annual cropping systems known as [[polyculture]]s.<ref name="CS" />
 
In [[subtropics|subtropical]] and [[arid]] environments, the timing and extent of agriculture may be limited by rainfall, either not allowing multiple annual crops in a year, or requiring [[irrigation]]. In all of these environments perennial crops are grown (coffee, chocolate) and systems are practiced such as [[agroforestry]]. In [[Temperateness|temperate]] environments, where ecosystems were predominantly [[grassland]] or [[prairie]], highly productive annual cropping is the dominant farming system.<ref name="CS"/>
 
==== Statistike useva ====
{{See also|List of most important agricultural crops worldwide}}
Important categories of crops include [[cereal]]s and [[pseudocereals]], pulses (legumes), forage, and fruits and vegetables. Specific crops are cultivated in distinct [[growing region]]s throughout the world. In millions of metric tons, based on [[Food and Agriculture Organization|FAO]] estimate.
<div class="center">
{| class="wikitable" style="float:left;"
|-
! colspan=2|Top agricultural products, by crop types <br />(million tonnes) 2004 data
|-
| Cereals || style="text-align:right;"| 2,263
|-
| Vegetables and melons || style="text-align:right;"| 866
|-
| [[Root]]s and [[tuber]]s || style="text-align:right;"| 715
|-
| Milk || style="text-align:right;"| 619
|-
| Fruit || style="text-align:right;"| 503
|-
| Meat || style="text-align:right;"| 259
|-
| [[Vegetable oil|Oilcrops]] || style="text-align:right;"| 133
|-
| Fish (2001 estimate) || style="text-align:right;"| 130
|-
| [[Egg (food)|Eggs]] || style="text-align:right;"| 63
|-
| [[Pulse (legume)|Pulses]] || style="text-align:right;"| 60
|-
| [[Fiber crop|Vegetable fiber]] || style="text-align:right;"| 30
|-
|colspan=2|''Source: <br />[[Food and Agriculture Organization]] (FAO)''<ref name="FAO">{{cite web |url=http://faostat.fao.org/ |title=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAOSTAT) |accessdate=2 February 2013 | archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20130118190636/http://faostat.fao.org/| archivedate= 18 January 2013}}</ref>
|}
{| class="wikitable" style="float:left;"
|-
! colspan=2|Top agricultural products, by individual crops <br />(million tonnes) 2011 data
|-
| Sugar cane || style="text-align:right;"| 1794
|-
| Maize || style="text-align:right;"| 883
|-
| Rice || style="text-align:right;"| 722
|-
| Wheat || style="text-align:right;"| 704
|-
| Potatoes || style="text-align:right;"| 374
|-
| Sugar beet || style="text-align:right;"| 271
|-
| Soybeans || style="text-align:right;"| 260
|-
| Cassava || style="text-align:right;"| 252
|-
| Tomatoes || style="text-align:right;"| 159
|-
| Barley || style="text-align:right;"| 134
|-
|colspan=2|''Source: <br />[[Food and Agriculture Organization]] (FAO)''<ref name="FAO" />
|}
{{-}}
</div>
 
=== Sistemi za produkciju marve ===
{{Main|Livestock}}
{{See also|List of domesticated animals}}
[[File:KerbauJawa.jpg|thumb|right|Ploughing rice paddies with [[water buffalo]], in Indonesia]]
Animals, including horses, [[mule]]s, [[ox]]en, [[water buffalo]], [[camel]]s, [[llama]]s, [[alpaca]]s, [[donkey]]s, and dogs, are often used to help [[Tillage|cultivate]] fields, [[harvest]] crops, wrangle other animals, and transport farm products to buyers. [[Animal husbandry]] not only refers to the breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk, [[egg (food)|eggs]], or [[wool]]) on a continual basis, but also to the breeding and care of species for work and companionship.
[[File:Traditional Farming Methods and Equipments.jpg|thumb|Oxen driven ploughs in [[India]]]]
Livestock production systems can be defined based on feed source, as [[grassland]]-based, mixed, and landless.<ref name="FAO lps">{{cite web|author=Sere, C.; Steinfeld, H.; Groeneweld, J.|year=1995|url=http://www.fao.org/WAIRDOCS/LEAD/X6101E/x6101e00.htm#Contents|title=Description of Systems in World Livestock Systems – Current status issues and trends|publisher=U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization|accessdate=8 September 2013}}</ref> {{as of|2010}}, 30% of Earth's ice- and water-free area was used for producing livestock, with the sector employing approximately 1.3 billion people. Between the 1960s and the 2000s, there was a significant increase in livestock production, both by numbers and by carcass weight, especially among beef, pigs and chickens, the latter of which had production increased by almost a factor of 10. Non-meat animals, such as milk cows and egg-producing chickens, also showed significant production increases. Global cattle, sheep and goat populations are expected to continue to increase sharply through 2050.<ref name=LP>{{cite journal|url=http://rstb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/365/1554/2853.full|title=Livestock production: recent trends, future prospects|author=Thornton, Philip K.|doi=10.1098/rstb.2010.0134|journal=Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B|date=27 September 2010|volume=365|number= 1554}}</ref> [[Aquaculture]] or fish farming, the production of fish for human consumption in confined operations, is one of the fastest growing sectors of food production, growing at an average of 9% a year between 1975 and 2007.<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1663604,00.html|title=Fish Farming's Growing Dangers|journal=Time|author=Stier, Ken|date=19 September 2007}}</ref>
 
During the second half of the 20th century, producers using [[selective breeding]] focused on creating livestock [[breed]]s and [[crossbreed]]s that increased production, while mostly disregarding the need to preserve [[genetic diversity]]. This trend has led to a significant decrease in genetic diversity and resources among livestock breeds, leading to a corresponding decrease in disease resistance and local adaptations previously found among traditional breeds.<ref>{{cite journal |title=A global view of livestock biodiversity and conservation – GLOBALDIV|author=P. Ajmone-Marsan|journal=Animal Genetics|date=May 2010|doi=10.1111/j.1365-2052.2010.02036.x|volume=41| issue = supplement S1|pages=1–5}}</ref>
 
Grassland based livestock production relies upon plant material such as [[shrubland]], [[rangeland]], and [[managed intensive rotational grazing|pastures]] for feeding [[ruminant]] animals. Outside nutrient inputs may be used, however manure is returned directly to the grassland as a major nutrient source. This system is particularly important in areas where crop production is not feasible because of climate or soil, representing 30–40 million pastoralists.<ref name="CS"/> Mixed production systems use grassland, [[fodder]] crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastric (one stomach; mainly chickens and pigs) livestock. Manure is typically recycled in mixed systems as a fertilizer for crops.<ref name="FAO lps"/>
 
Landless systems rely upon feed from outside the farm, representing the de-linking of crop and livestock production found more prevalently in [[Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development]](OECD) member countries. Synthetic fertilizers are more heavily relied upon for crop production and manure utilization becomes a challenge as well as a source for pollution.<ref name="FAO lps"/> Industrialized countries use these operations to produce much of the global supplies of poultry and pork. Scientists estimate that 75% of the growth in livestock production between 2003 and 2030 will be in [[confined animal feeding operations]], sometimes called [[factory farming]]. Much of this growth is happening in developing countries in Asia, with much smaller amounts of growth in Africa.<ref name=LP/> Some of the practices used in commercial livestock production, including the usage of [[growth hormone]]s, are controversial.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-02-604_en.pdf |title=Growth Promoting Hormones Pose Health Risk to Consumers, Confirms EU Scientific Committee|date=23 April 2002|accessdate=6 April 2013|publisher=European Union}}</ref>
 
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