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[[File:William Bell Scott - Iron and Coal.jpg|thumb|300px| ''Iron and Coal'', 1855–60, by [[William Bell Scott]] illustrates the central place of coal and iron working in the industrial revolution and the heavy engineering projects they made possible.]]
U drugoj polovici [[18. stoljeće|XVIII. stoljeća]] ručna se proizvodnja počela zamjenjivati [[parni stroj|parnim strojevima]]. Time je počeo razvoj koji je od kraja 18. do sredine [[19. stoljeće|19. stoljeća]] temeljito izmjenio ranije političke, gospodarske i društvene sustave u većem dijelu svijeta. Počela je '''Prva industrijska revolucija'''.
 
'''Industrijska revolucija''' je bila tranzicija u nove proizvodne procese u periodu new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840. This transition included going from hand production methods to machines, new chemical manufacturing and iron production processes, improved efficiency of [[water wheel|water power]], the increasing use of [[steam power]], and the development of [[machine tool]]s. It also included the change from wood and other [[bio-fuels]] to [[coal]]. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.<ref>{{Harvnb|Landes|1969|pp=40}}</ref>
[[File:Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg|thumb|left|250px|A [[Watt steam engine]]. The [[steam engine]], made of iron and fueled primarily by [[coal]], propelled the Industrial Revolution in [[United Kingdom|Great Britain]] and the world.<ref name="industrial"/>]]
 
The Industrial Revolution marks a major turning point in history; almost every aspect of daily life was influenced in some way. In particular, average income and population began to exhibit unprecedented sustained growth. Some economists say that the major impact of the Industrial Revolution was that the [[standard of living]] for the general population began to increase consistently for the first time in history, although others have said that it did not begin to meaningfully improve until the late 19th and 20th centuries.<ref name="Lectures on Economic Growth"/><ref name="Feinstein2014">{{cite journal|last=Feinstein|first=Charles|title=Pessimism Perpetuated: Real Wages and the Standard of Living in Britain during and after the Industrial Revolution|journal=Journal of Economic History|date=September 1998|volume=58|issue=3|pages=625–58|url=http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=4123540|accessdate=6 May 2014|doi=10.1017/s0022050700021100}}</ref><ref name="SzreterMooney2014">{{cite journal|author=Szreter & Mooney|title=Urbanization, Mortality, and the Standard of Living Debate: New Estimates of the Expectation of Life at Birth in Nineteenth-Century British Cities|journal=The Economic History Review|date=February 1998|volume=51|issue=1|page=104|url=http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1468-0289.00084/abstract|accessdate=6 May 2014|doi=10.1111/1468-0289.00084|last2=Mooney}}</ref>
 
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain, and spread to Western Europe and North America within a few decades.<ref name="Harvnb|Landes|1969">{{Harvnb|Landes|1969}}</ref> The precise start and end of the Industrial Revolution is still debated among historians, as is the pace of economic and social changes.<ref name="revolution"/><ref name="google1"/><ref name="Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution"/><ref name="lorenzen"/> [[Gross domestic product|GDP]] per capita was broadly stable before the Industrial Revolution and the emergence of the modern [[capitalism|capitalist]] economy,<ref name="The Industrial Revolution"/> while the Industrial Revolution began an era of per-capita [[economic growth]] in capitalist economies.<ref name="The Industrial Revolution ''Past and Future''"/> Economic historians are in agreement that the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important event in the history of humanity since the domestication of animals, plants<ref name="ReviewOfCambridge"/> and fire.
The First Industrial Revolution evolved into the [[Second Industrial Revolution]] in the transition years between 1840 and 1870, when technological and economic progress continued with the increasing adoption of steam transport (steam-powered railways, boats and ships), the large-scale manufacture of machine tools and the increasing use of machinery in steam-powered factories.<ref name="Taylor 1951">{{cite book |title=The Transportation Revolution, 1815–1860 |last=Taylor |first= George Rogers |isbn= 978-0-87332-101-3|pages=}} No name is given to the transition years. The "Transportation Revolution" began with improved roads in the late 18th century.</ref><ref>{{Harvnb|Hunter|1985|pp=}}</ref>
 
== Parni stroj i njegovo značenje ==
[[Datoteka:Maquina vapor Watt ETSIIM.jpg|thumb|left|200px|Parna mašina DŽejmsaDžejmsa Vata]]
[[Datoteka:Hw-watt.jpg|thumb|200px|James Watt]]
U 18. stoljeću je najveću manufakturnu proizvodnju imala [[Engleska]]. U njoj se povećavala potreba za tkaninama pa su proizvođači tkanina, radi povećavanja i ubrzavanja proizvodnje, primjenjivali izume u poduzećima.
== Reference ==
{{reflist|2|refs=
<ref name="Lectures on Economic Growth">{{cite book |last= Lucas |first= Robert E., Jr. |authorlink= |title= Lectures on Economic Growth |publisher= Harvard University Press |year= 2002 |location= Cambridge |pages= 109–10|url= |doi= |id= |isbn= 978-0-674-01601-9}}</ref>
 
<ref name="industrial">Watt steam engine File: located in the lobby of into the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the UPM (Madrid)</ref>
 
<ref name="revolution">Eric Hobsbawm, ''The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848'', Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd., p. 27 ISBN 0-349-10484-0</ref>
 
<ref name="google1">Joseph E Inikori. ''Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England'', Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01079-9 [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0521010799&id=y7rhKYWhCyIC&pg=PA102&lpg=PA102&sig=zOPr9UkQv258KyhCkuFM0abERnI Read it]</ref>
 
<ref name="Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution">{{cite journal |doi=10.2307/2598327 |title=Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution |year=1992 |author=Berg, Maxine |journal=The Economic History Review |volume=45 |author2=Hudson, Pat |issue=1 |publisher=The Economic History Review, Vol. 45, No. 1 |jstor=2598327 |pages=24–50 |authorlink2= }}</ref>
 
<ref name="lorenzen">[http://www.julielorenzen.net/berg.html Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution] by Julie Lorenzen, Central Michigan University. Retrieved November 2006.</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution">{{cite web |publisher= Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis |url= http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm |title= The Industrial Revolution |accessdate= 14 November 2007 |author= Robert Lucas, Jr. |year= 2003 |quote= it is fairly clear that up to 1800 or maybe 1750, no society had experienced sustained growth in per capita income. (Eighteenth century population growth also averaged one-third of 1 percent, the same as production growth.) That is, up to about two centuries ago, per capita incomes in all societies were stagnated at around $400 to $800 per year.}}</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution ''Past and Future''">{{cite web |url= http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm |title= The Industrial Revolution ''Past and Future'' |first= Robert |last= Lucas |year= 2003 |quote= [consider] annual growth rates of 2.4 percent for the first 60 years of the 20th century, of 1 percent for the entire 19th century, of one-third of 1 percent for the 18th century}}</ref>
 
<ref name="ReviewOfCambridge">{{cite web |url= http://deirdremccloskey.org/articles/floud.php |title= Review of The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (edited by Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson), Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 January 2004 |first= Deidre |last= McCloskey |year= 2004 |doi= |id= |isbn=}}</ref>
 
 
<!--
<ref name="Clow52">{{Cite journal |last1=Clow|first1=Archibald |last2=Clow|first2=Nan L. |date=June 1952 |title=Chemical Revolution |publisher=Ayer Co |pages=65–90 |isbn=0-8369-1909-2 |postscript=}}</ref>
 
<ref name="From Coal Mine Upwards: or Seventy Years of an Eventful Life">{{Cite book |last1= Dunn |first1= James |author1-link= |title= From Coal Mine Upwards: or Seventy Years of an Eventful Life |year= 1905 |isbn=1-4344-6870-4}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Lectures on Economic Growth">{{cite book |last= Lucas |first= Robert E., Jr. |authorlink= |title= Lectures on Economic Growth |publisher= Harvard University Press |year= 2002 |location= Cambridge |pages= 109–10|url= |doi= |id= |isbn= 978-0-674-01601-9}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution">{{cite journal |doi=10.2307/2598327 |title=Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution |year=1992 |author=Berg, Maxine |journal=The Economic History Review |volume=45 |author2=Hudson, Pat |issue=1 |publisher=The Economic History Review, Vol. 45, No. 1 |jstor=2598327 |pages=24–50 |authorlink2= }}</ref>
 
<ref name="Men, Machines and Modern Times">{{cite book |title=Men, Machines and Modern Times |last=Morison |first=Elting E. |authorlink=|year=1966|publisher=The M.I.T Press|location=Cambridga, Ma and London, UK |isbn=|pages=|url=}}</ref>
 
<ref name="ReviewOfCambridge">{{cite web |url= http://deirdremccloskey.org/articles/floud.php |title= Review of The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (edited by Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson), Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 January 2004 |first= Deidre |last= McCloskey |year= 2004 |doi= |id= |isbn=}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Technics & Civilization">{{cite web |url=http://www.amazon.com/gp/reader/015688254X?p=S00Q&checkSum=udoW5CVmUdy3Y45ns0wtGk7Wesh6yWx220dcukbd7VE%3D |title=Technics & Civilization |publisher=Lewis Mumford |accessdate=8 January 2009}}</ref>
 
<ref name="Testimony Gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission">{{cite web |title= Testimony Gathered by Ashley's Mines Commission |year= 2008 |accessdate= 22 March 2008 |url=http://www.victorianweb.org/history/ashley.html}}</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution ''Past and Future''">{{cite web |url= http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm |title= The Industrial Revolution ''Past and Future'' |first= Robert |last= Lucas |year= 2003 |quote= [consider] annual growth rates of 2.4 percent for the first 60 years of the 20th century, of 1 percent for the entire 19th century, of one-third of 1 percent for the 18th century}}</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution by Pat Hudson, pg. 198">{{cite book|url=http://books.google.com/?id=Bh7HVl92bVMC&pg=PA194&lpg=PA194&dq=Industrial+Revolution,+slavery#PPA198,M1 |title=The Industrial Revolution by Pat Hudson, pg. 198 |publisher=Books.google.com |accessdate=30 January 2011|isbn=978-0-7131-6531-9|year=1992}}</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution – Causes">{{cite web|author=Eric Bond, Sheena Gingerich, Oliver Archer-Antonsen, Liam Purcell, Elizabeth Macklem |url=http://industrialrevolution.sea.ca/causes.html |title=The Industrial Revolution – Causes |publisher=Industrialrevolution.sea.ca |date=17 February 2003 |accessdate=30 January 2011}}</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution">{{cite web |publisher= Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis |url= http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm |title= The Industrial Revolution |accessdate= 14 November 2007 |author= Robert Lucas, Jr. |year= 2003 |quote= it is fairly clear that up to 1800 or maybe 1750, no society had experienced sustained growth in per capita income. (Eighteenth century population growth also averaged one-third of 1 percent, the same as production growth.) That is, up to about two centuries ago, per capita incomes in all societies were stagnated at around $400 to $800 per year.}}</ref>
 
<ref name="The Industrial Revolution13">{{cite book|last=Hudson|first=Pat|title=The Industrial Revolution|publisher=Edward Arnold|location=London|year=1992|page=11|isbn=978-0-7131-6531-9}}</ref>
 
<ref name="development2">Hulse, David H: The Early Development of the Steam Engine; TEE Publishing, Leamington Spa, UK, 1999 ISBN 1-85761-107-1</ref>
 
<ref name="industrial">Watt steam engine File: located in the lobby of into the Superior Technical School of Industrial Engineers of the UPM (Madrid)</ref>
 
<ref name="google1">Joseph E Inikori. ''Africans and the Industrial Revolution in England'', Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-01079-9 [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0521010799&id=y7rhKYWhCyIC&pg=PA102&lpg=PA102&sig=zOPr9UkQv258KyhCkuFM0abERnI Read it]</ref>
 
<ref name="google3">Overton, Mark. [http://books.google.com/books?id=nj8ixXhFgLAC&pg=PA122&dq=Rotherham+plough+of+1730&hl=en&ei=-YYLTbmNOsfBhAeHi7W3Cw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDkQ6AEwBDgK#v=onepage&q=Rotherham%20plough%20of%201730&f=false Agricultural revolution in England: the transformation of the agrarian economy, 1500–1850] Cambridge University Press, 1996</ref>
 
<ref name="industrial4">R.M. Hartwell, ''The Industrial Revolution and Economic Growth'', Methuen and Co., 1971, page&nbsp;339–341 ISBN 0-416-19500-8</ref>
 
<ref name="lorenzen">[http://www.julielorenzen.net/berg.html Rehabilitating the Industrial Revolution] by Julie Lorenzen, Central Michigan University. Retrieved November 2006.</ref>
 
<ref name="galbithink">"[http://www.galbithink.org/child.htm Child Labour and the Division of Labour in the Early English Cotton Mills]". Douglas A. Galbi. Centre for History and Economics, King's College, Cambridge CB2 1ST.</ref>
 
<ref name="marczewski">Jean Marczewski, « Y a-t-il eu un "''take-off''" en France ? », 1961, dans les ''Cahiers de l'ISEA''</ref>
 
<ref name="revolution">Eric Hobsbawm, ''The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848'', Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd., p. 27 ISBN 0-349-10484-0</ref>
 
<ref name="google11">Deane, Phyllis. ''The First Industrial Revolution'', Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29609-9 [http://books.google.com/books?ie=UTF-8&vid=ISBN0521296099&id=eMBG_soDdNoC&pg=PA131&lpg=PA131&sig=xzXl17mm0GYiH80TH-V0lR7JVAk Read it]</ref>
|volume=15 (January)
}}
 
* Robert C. Allen: ''The British Industrial Revolution in Global Perspective (New Approaches to Economic and Social History).'' Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2009, ISBN 978-0-521-68785-0.
* André Armengaud: ''Die Industrielle Revolution''. In: Carlo M. Cipolla, Knut Borchard (Hrsg.): ''Europäische Wirtschaftsgeschichte''. Band 3, Fischer, Stuttgart / New York, NY 1985, ISBN 3-437-40151-3.
* T. S. Ashton: ''The Industrial Revolution 1760–1830.'' Oxford University Press, Oxford 1968.
* T. S. Ashton (Hrsg.): ''Toynbee's Industrial Revolution''. A Reprint of Lectures on the Industrial Revolution in England. With a new Introduction. August M. Kelley, New York 1969.
* Knut Borchardt: ''Die industrielle Revolution in Deutschland''. Piper, München 1972, ISBN 3-492-00340-0.
* Fernand Braudel: ''Sozialgeschichte des 15.-18. Jahrhunderts'', 3. Band, Kapitel 6: ''Industrielle Revolution und Wachstum''. Kindler, München 1986
* Christoph Buchheim: ''Industrielle Revolutionen.'' dtv, München 1994, ISBN 3-423-04622-8.
* Flurin Condrau: ''Die Industrialisierung in Deutschland.'' Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2005, ISBN 3-534-15008-2.
* N. F. R. Crafts: ''British Enonomic Growth during the Industrial Revolution.'' Clarendon, Oxford 1980, ISBN 0-19-873067-5.
* Phyllis Dean: ''The First Industrial Revolution.'' 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1982, ISBN 0-521-22667-8.
* Arne Eggebrecht, Jens Flemming, Gert Meyer, Achatz v. Müller, Alfred Oppolzer, Akos Paulinyi, Helmuth Schneider: ''Geschichte der Arbeit. Vom alten Ägypten bis zur Gegenwart.'' Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Köln 1980, ISBN 3-462-01382-3 (im engeren Sinn zur Industriellen Revolution dort S. 193–302).
* Hans-Werner Hahn: ''Die industrielle Revolution in Deutschland.'' 2. Auflage. Oldenbourg, München 2005, ISBN 3-486-57669-0.
* Eric Hobsbawm: ''Europäische Revolutionen. 1789 bis 1848.'' Kindler, Zürich 1962; erneut 1978, ISBN 3-463-13715-1.
* Eric Hobsbawm: ''Industrie und Empire. Britische Wirtschaftsgeschichte seit 1750.'' 2 Bände. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main 1969.
* David S. Landes: ''Der entfesselte Prometheus. Technologischer Wandel und industrielle Entwicklung in Westeuropa von 1750 bis zur Gegenwart''. (TB-Ausgabe) dtv, München 1983, ISBN 3-423-04418-7.
* Peter Mathias / John A. Davis (Hrsg,): ''The First Industrial Revolutions.'' Basil Blackwell, Oxford 1990, ISBN 0-631-16039-6.
* Jürgen Osterhammel: ''Die Verwandlung der Welt. Eine Geschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts.'' München 2009, ISBN 978-3-406-58283-7.
* Akoš Paulinyi: ''Industrielle Revolution. Vom Ursprung der modernen Technik.'' Reinbek 1989, ISBN 3-499-17735-8.
* Toni Pierenkemper: ''Umstrittene Revolutionen. Die Industrialisierung im 19. Jahrhundert''. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1996, ISBN 3-596-60147-9.
* Sidney Pollard: ''The Genesis of Modern Management. A Study of the Industrial Revolution in Great Britain''. London 1965.
* Dieter Ziegler: ''Die industrielle Revolution''. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 2005, ISBN 3-534-15810-5.
 
{{refend}}
 
* [http://www.dingdongcounthouse.org.uk The History of the Count House of Ding Dong Mine, Cornwall where Richard Trevithick carried out his first experiments with high pressure steam]
* [http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/270 "The Day the World Took Off" Six part video series from the University of Cambridge tracing the question "Why did the Industrial Revolution begin when and where it did."]
* Industrielle Revolution (Begriffsdefinition; Lexikon der bpb): [http://www.bpb.de/wissen/NAIUWJ,0,0,Industrielle_Revolution.html Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung (Lexikon)]
* Informationen zur politischen Bildung (Heft 164): [http://www.bpb.de/publikationen/06669054807530959749443523968465,0,0,Das_19_Jahrhundert_2.html Das 19. Jahrhundert 2]
* [http://www.mlwerke.de/me/me02/me02_225.htm Friedrich Engels: ''Zur Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in England'' (mit Links zu den einzelnen Kapiteln)]
 
[[Kategorija:Industrija|Revolucija]]
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