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'''Vincent van Gogh''' (Zundert, [[30. 3.|30. ožujka]] [[1853]]. - Anvers-sur-Oise, [[29. 7.|29. srpnja]] [[1890]].), nizozemski slikar, grafičar i crtač.<ref name="Pix">Pomerans (1996), ix</ref><ref>[http://www.vangoghletters.org/vg "Van Gogh: The Letters"], vangoghletters.org; retrieved 7 October 2009.</ref><ref>[http://www.webexhibits.org/vangogh Van Gogh's letters, Unabridged and Annotated], webexhibits.org; retrieved 25 June 2009.</ref>
 
== Životopis ==
 
Sedam je godina proživio kao namještenik u [[Hag|Haagu]], a zatim je poslan u podružnicu Goupila u [[London]] ([[1873]]-[[1876|76]]). U toj je trgovini slika dobio ne samo uvid u slikarstvo, već se i sam zainteresirao za slikanje te nastojao postati slikar. Prvi Van Goghovi crteži nastaju pod utjecajem idealista [[Jean-François Millet|Milleta]] u [[Belgija|Belgiji]]. [[1881]]. upoznaje se sa slikarom [[Anton Mauve|Mauveom]], a taj ga poznati slikar bodri, upućuje i prvi mu daje savjete kako bi trebao postupiti likovnim rješavanjima.<ref>[http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/expressionism/Vincent-Van-Gogh.html Vincent Van Gogh Biography, Quotes & Paintings], ''The Art History Archive''; retrieved 12 July 2011.</ref><ref>Pomerans (1997), pg. 1</ref>
 
Nakon kratkog boravka u Haagu odlazi u Brabant. U njegovom se likovnom izrazu tada počinje sve više i sve jasnije stavljati značajna crta humanitarne zanesenosti. Gogh se strastveno obraća prikazivanju života seljaka i radnika, koji se pate i muče na svojoj zemlji, da bi joj u svojoj bijedi istrgli nasušni hljeb. U tome razdoblju radi tamne male [[slika|slike]], gotovo sve u crnom. Te su slike blijede, izražajne, a uz to brutalne do [[karikatura|karikature]]. Svi su ti likovi sumorni, i oni nacrtani i oni naslikani. Slikala ih je i crtala svijest osjetljive ćudi, koja je u životu od rana osjećala izolaciju i tjeskobu i redom proživljavala krize. Usred svih tih kriza i protuslovlja odlučuje se Gogh uporno i upravo strastveno za [[slikarstvo]].
 
Van Gogh čitavo vrijeme strastveno crta kao fanatični autodidakt koji istovremeno i traži i prima savjete sa svih strana. Štoviše, tri mjeseca boravi na akademiji u [[Antwerpen]]u, da bi nadoknadio svoje nedostatke u crtanju. No njegova ga je nemirna priroda tjerala u [[Pariz]], kamo ga je zvao brat Théo. Početkom [[1886]]. dolazi u Pariz i postaje đak [[Fernand Cormon|Cormonov]], te u ove četiri godine do smrti Van Gogh doživljuje svoju veliku evoluciju. Već [[1887]]. njegova se paleta radikalno mijenja: prema prijašnjem sumornom načinu čini se ta promjena kao regeneracija. Očituju se značajke arabeske u svježim otvorenim [[boja]]ma, forma postaje dekorativna uz potcrtani [[grafizam]]. Van Gogh traži sintezu u pojednostavljenju. Novi se način Van Goghov ispoljava sve jače i snažnije: isključuju se sjene i svaka modelacija. On primjenjuje čistu otvorenu skalu boja, a oblike konturira tamnom bojom.
 
[[1888]]. izbacuje gotovo sliku za slikom. Uz to su se njegove boje pod [[sredozemno more|mediteranskim]] nebom zažarile, zasjale i zablistale kao da je u njima iskričavo svjetlo samoga Sunca. Van Gogh slikao je i samo Sunce u punom žaru.
 
 
[[Datoteka:VanGogh-starry night.jpg|mini|''[[Zvjezdana noć]]'', 1889. g.]]
[[8. 5.|8. svibnja]] [[1889]]. dolazi u [[Saint-Rémy-de-Provence]] u [[Provansa|Provansi]] na bolničko liječenje.<ref>Tralbaut (1981), pp. 286-87</ref><ref>Hulsker (1990), 390</ref> Tamo je počeo slikati [[čempres]]e i [[Maslina|masline]], a nastala je još jedna čuvena slika ''[[Zvjezdana noć]]''. Svom je bratu Théu napisao: {{citat|Vječno je pitanje, je li nam dano da prije smrti spoznamo samo jednu hemisferu. Što se mene tiče, odgovora nema, ali zvijezde me uvijek potiču na razmišljanje.}}
Godine [[1890]]. seli se u [[Auvers-sur-Oise]] na liječenje kod dr. Paula Gacheta kako bi bio bliže svom bratu. Prvi dojam Van Gogha o dr. Gachetu bio je: "mislim da je bolesniji od mene, ili možemo reći jednako". Dr. Gachet je Van Gogha pretpostavlja se liječio biljkom [[Digitalis purpurea|crvenim naprstkom]], s kojom je Van Gogh i naslikao liječnika, a danas se smatra da je ta [[biljka]] možda i djelovala na slikarevu percepciju [[Žuto|žute]] boje, s obzirom da pacijenti koji se njome liječe vide sve oko sebe žućkasto. Osim toga sumnja se također da su ga mučile [[shizofrenija]] i [[bipolarni afektivni poremećaj|manična depresija]], koje također utječu na percepciju stvarnosti i raspoloženje.
* [http://www.vggallery.com/ Kompletna djela Vincenta van Gogha]
 
== Reference ==
{{Lifetime|1853|1890|Van Gogh, Vincent}}
{{Reflist|2}}
 
== Literatura ==
{{refbegin|2}}
* Bernard, Bruce (ed.). ''Vincent by Himself''. London: Time Warner (2004). <!-- ISBN needed -->
* Callow, Philip. ''Vincent van Gogh: A Life''. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee (1990); ISBN 1-56663-134-3
* Erickson, Kathleen Powers. ''At Eternity's Gate: The Spiritual Vision of Vincent van Gogh'' (1998); ISBN 0-8028-4978-4
* Gayford, Martin. ''The Yellow House: Van Gogh, Gauguin, and Nine Turbulent Weeks in Arles''. London: Penguin (2006); ISBN 0-670-91497-5
* Grossvogel, David I. ''Behind the Van Gogh Forgeries: A Memoir by David I. Grossvogel''. San Jose: Author's Choice Press (2001); ISBN 0-595-17717-4
* Hammacher, A.M. ''Vincent van Gogh: Genius and Disaster''. New York: Harry N. Abrams (1985); ISBN 0-8109-8067-3
* Havlicek, William J. ''Van Gogh's Untold Journey''. Amsterdam: Creative Storytellers (2010); ISBN 978-0-9824872-1-1
* Hughes, Robert. ''Nothing If Not Critical''. London: The Harvill Press (1990); ISBN 0-14-016524-X
* Hulsker, Jan. ''Vincent and Theo van Gogh; A dual biography''. Ann Arbor: Fuller Publications (1990); ISBN 0-940537-05-2
* Hulsker, J. ''The Complete Van Gogh''. Oxford: Phaidon (1980); ISBN 0-7148-2028-8
* Hughes, Robert. "Introduction." ''The Portable Van Gogh'' (2002). New York: Universe; ISBN 0-7893-0803-7
* Lubin, Albert J. ''Stranger on the earth: A psychological biography of Vincent van Gogh''. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston (1972); ISBN 0-03-091352-7
* McQuillan, Melissa. ''Van Gogh''. London: Thames and Hudson (1989); ISBN 1-86046-859-4
* Naifeh, Steven and Gregory White Smith. [http://vangoghbiography.com/mission ''Van Gogh: the Life''], New York: Random House (2011); ISBN 978-0-375-50748-9
* Nemeczek, Alfred. ''Van Gogh in Arles''. Prestel Verlag (1999); ISBN 3-7913-2230-3
* Pomerans, Arnold. ''The Letters of Vincent van Gogh''. London: Penguin Classics (1997); ISBN 0-14-044674-5
* Petrucelli, Alan W. ''Morbid Curiosity: The Disturbing Demises of the Famous and Infamous''. Perigee Trade; ISBN 0-399-53527-6 <!-- year?? -->
* Rewald, John. ''Post-Impressionism: From van Gogh to Gauguin''. London: Secker & Warburg (1978); ISBN 0-436-41151-2
* Rewald, John. ''Studies in Post-Impressionism''. New York: Abrams (1986); ISBN 0-8109-1632-0
* Sund, Judy. ''Van Gogh''. London: Phaidon (2002); ISBN 0-7148-4084-X
* Sweetman, David. ''Van Gogh: His Life and His Art''. New York: Touchstone (1990); ISBN 0-671-74338-4
* Tralbaut, Marc Edo. ''Vincent van Gogh, le mal aimé''. Edita, Lausanne {{fr icon}} & Macmillan, London (1969) {{en icon}}; reissued by Macmillan (1974), and by Alpine Fine Art Collections (1981); ISBN 0-933516-31-2
* Van Heugten, Sjraar. ''Van Gogh The Master Draughtsman''. London: Thames and Hudson (2005); ISBN 978-0-500-23825-7
* Walther, Ingo F. & Metzger, Rainer. ''Van Gogh: the Complete Paintings''. New York: Taschen (1997); ISBN 3-8228-8265-8
* {{cite book|last=Walther|first=Ingo|title=Van Gogh|year=2000|publisher=Taschen|location=Cologne|isbn=978-3-8228-6322-0|ref=harv}}
* Wilkie, Kenneth. "The Van Gogh File: The Myth and the Man." Souvenir Press Ltd (2004); ISBN 978-0-285-63691-0
* Boime, Albert. ''Vincent van Gogh: Die Sternennacht-Die Geschichte des Stoffes und der Stoff der Geschichte'', Frankfurt/Mainz: Fischer (1989); ISBN 3-596-23953-2
* Cachin, Françoise & Bogomila Welsh-Ovcharov. ''Van Gogh à Paris'' (exh. cat. Musée d'Orsay, Paris 1988), Paris: RMN (1988); ISBN 2-7118-2159-5.
* Dorn, Roland: ''Décoration: Vincent van Gogh's Werkreihe für das Gelbe Haus in Arles''. Zürich & New York: Olms Verlag, Hildesheim (1990); ISBN 3-487-09098-8.
* Dorn, Roland, Fred Leeman & alt. ''Vincent van Gogh and Early Modern Art, 1890–1914'' (exh. cat). Essen & Amsterdam (1990); ISBN 3-923641-33-8 {{en icon}}; ISBN 3-923641-31-1 {{de icon}}; ISBN 90-6630-247-X (in Dutch)
* Dorn, Roland, George Keyesm & alt. ''Van Gogh Face to Face: The Portraits'' (exh. cat). Detroit, Boston & Philadelphia, 2000–01, Thames & Hudson, London & New York, 2000; ISBN 0-89558-153-1
* Druick, Douglas, Pieter Zegers & alt. ''Van Gogh and Gauguin-The Studio of the South'' (exh. cat). Chicago & Amsterdam 2001–02, Thames & Hudson, London & New York 2001; ISBN 0-500-51054-7
* Fell, Derek. ''The Impressionist Garden'', London: Frances Lincoln, 1997; ISBN 0-7112-1148-5
* Geskó, Judit, ed. ''Van Gogh in Budapest''. Budapest: Vince Books, 2006; ISBN 978-963-7063-34-3 {{en icon}}; ISBN 963-7063-33-1 {{hu icon}}
* Ives, Colta, Stein, Susan Alyson & alt. ''Vincent van Gogh-The Drawings''. New Haven: YUP, 2005; ISBN 0-300-10720-X
* Kōdera, Tsukasa. ''Vincent van Gogh-Christianity versus Nature''. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 1990; ISBN 90-272-5333-1
* Pickvance, Ronald. ''English Influences on Vincent van Gogh'' (exh. cat). University of Nottingham & alt. 1974/75). London: Arts Council, 1974.
* Pickvance, R. ''Van Gogh in Arles'' (exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Abrams, 1984; ISBN 0-87099-375-5
* Pickvance, R. ''Van Gogh In Saint-Rémy and Auvers'' (exh. cat. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: Abrams, 1986; ISBN 0-87099-477-8
* Orton, Fred and Griselda Pollock. "Rooted in the Earth: A Van Gogh Primer", in: ''Avant-Gardes and Partisans Reviewed''. London: Redwood Books, 1996; ISBN 0-7190-4398-0
* Robert Rosenblum|Rosenblum, Robert (1975), Modern Painting and the Northern Romantic Tradition: Friedrich to Rothko, New York: Harper & Row; ISBN 0-06-430057-9
* Schaefer, Iris, Caroline von Saint-George & Katja Lewerentz: ''Painting Light. The hidden techniques of the Impressionists''. Milan: Skira, 2008; ISBN 88-6130-609-8
* Turner, J. (2000). ''From Monet to Cézanne: late 19th-century French artists''. Grove Art. New York: St Martin's Press; ISBN 0-312-22971-2
* Van der Wolk, Johannes: ''De schetsboeken van Vincent van Gogh'', Meulenhoff/Landshoff, Amsterdam (1986); ISBN 90-290-8154-6; translated to English: ''The Seven Sketchbooks of Vincent van Gogh: a facsimile edition'', New York: Abrams, 1987.
* Van Heugten, Sjraar. "Radiographic images of Vincent van Gogh's paintings in the collection of the Van Gogh Museum", ''Van Gogh Museum Journal''. 1995. pp.&nbsp;63–85; ISBN 90-400-9796-8
* Van Heugten, S. ''Vincent van Gogh Drawings, vol. 1'', Bussum: V+K, 1996. ISBN 90-6611-501-7 (Dutch edition).
* Van Uitert, Evert, et al. ''Van Gogh in Brabant: Paintings and drawings from Etten and Nuenen'' {{en icon}}. Zwolle: Waanders, Zwolle (1987); ISBN 90-6630-104-X
* Van Uitert, Evert, Louis van Tilborgh and Sjraar van Heughten. [http://books.google.com/books?ei=p7EpToX3HMLYgAeBmcSXCw&ct=result&sqi=2&id=F8_qAAAAMAAJ&dq=van+uitert+van+gogh+paintings&q=tree+roots#search_anchor Paintings] (1990). (Centenary exhibition catalogue) Amsterdam: Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh; accessed 20 November 2014.
{{refend}}
 
==Vanjske veze==
{{Commonscat}}
* [http://www.vggallery.com/ Vincent van Gogh Gallery: The complete works and letters of Vincent van Gogh], vggallery.com; accessed 20 November 2014.
<!--interwiki-->
* [http://vangoghletters.org/vg The complete letters of Van Gogh (translated into English and annotated)], vangoghletters.org; accessed 20 November 2014.
* [http://www.vggallery.com/misc/archives/jo_memoir.htm Memoir of Vincent van Gogh], vggallery.com; accessed 20 November 2014.
* [http://www.webexhibits.org/vangogh/memoir/sisterinlaw/1.html Memoir of Vincent van Gogh], webexhibits.org; accessed 20 November 2014.
* [http://www.webexhibits.org/vangogh Van Gogh's Letters (unabridged and annotated)], webexhibits.org; accessed 20 November 2014.
* [http://www.getty.edu/vow/ULANFullDisplay?find=van+gogh&role=&nation=&prev_page=1&subjectid=500115588 Union List of Artist Names, Getty Vocabularies (ULAN Full Record Display for Vincent van Gogh. Getty Vocabulary Program, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, California); accessed 20 November 2014. ]
* {{Gutenberg author | id=Gogh,+Vincent+Van}}
 
{{Lifetime|1853|1890|Van Gogh, Vincent}}
 
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