Lijevi centar

Lijevi centar ili umjerena ljevica, u političkoj teoriji, je naziv za poziciju na političkom spektru.

Crvena zastava, simbol pokreta ljevice i lijevog centra
Crvena ruža, simbol demokracije i anti-autoritarizma u načinu djelovanja protiv društvenih nepravdi[1][2][3]

Označava političke ideje, političke stranke i političke pokrete koji po svojim temeljnim programskim određenjima pripadaju političkoj ljevici, ali u svojoj praktičnoj platformi imaju dosta kompromisnih sadržaja što ih približava političkom centru, te ih se zbog toga ne može nazvati političkom ljevicom u klasičnom smislu.

Političke stranke i organizacije koje se smatraju lijevim centrom najčešće nastoje pronaći kompromis između socijalno-odgovornih i pragmatičnih sadržaja u svojim programima. Od njih su najpoznatije stranke, organizacije i pokreti socijaldemokratske orijentacije, koji se najčešće nazivaju lijevim centrom.

Pojam lijevog centra se često koristi i za opis koalicije koju čine stranke ljevice i centra.

Lijevi centar na političkom spektru predstavlja ljevicu okrenutu političkom pragmatizmu.[4][5] Pragmatična politika lijevog centra se usmjerava samo na minimalni program, kojim u okviru ustanova predstavničke, parlamentarne demokracije i tržišne kapitalističke ekonomije nastoji sprovesti djelimičnu promjenu putem aktivne ekonomske uloge javnog sektora, javnih institucija i servisa koji bi trebalo da rade na ublažavanju nepravdi koje nanosi neregulirani, liberalni model kapitalizma.[6][7][8][9][10][11] Praktično ostvarenje takve djelimične promjene u okviru ustanova parlamentarne demokracije i tržišne kapitalističke ekonomije uobičajeno se naziva socijalno odgovornom državom ili državom blagostanja.[12][13][14][8][15] Lijevi centar se smatra umjerenom strujom u suvremenom ljevičarskom pokretu.[16][17][18][19]

KarakteristikeUredi

Obilježja lijevog centra:[20][11][21]

  • razvijanje prava i sloboda zapostavljenih i obespravljenih pojedinaca, društvenih skupina i slojeva;
  • održivi ekonomski razvoj, uz razvijanje ravnomjernog razvoja urbanih i ruralnih područja;
  • afirmiranje rodne ravnopravnosti;
  • razvijanje pluralističkog i solidarnog društva koje unapređuje kvalitet života za radnice i radnike, ugrožene slojeve i cjelokupno društvo;
  • unapređenje uravnoteženosti lokalnog i regionalnog razvoja;
  • promoviranje mirnog i diplomatskog načina rješavanja sporova i sukoba;
  • korištenje demokratskih i nenasilnih parlamentarnih i izvanparlamentarnih oblika djelovanja i opiranje svim nedemokratskim, autoritarnim i totalitarnim oblicima djelovanja.

Umjerena progresivna stranka u matičnom toku zemlje koja je zasnovana na parlamentarnoj demokraciji i tržišnoj kapitalističkoj ekonomiji, sa glasačkim tijelom kako u nižoj klasi tako i u srednjoj klasi, mogla bi biti opisana kao politička stranka lijevog centra.[22][23] Dok bi stranka sa većim zahtjevima i ciljevima, koja ima glasačko tijelo među onim dijelom malobrojnije, ali svjesnije srednje i niže klase, fizičke i intelektualne, te sa historijom podrške i učešća u emancipacijskim i progresivnim pokretima, mogla biti opisana kao stranka radikalnije, nove ljevice.[24][25][26][27]

Političke stranke lijevog centra, kao i druge suvremene ljevičarske stranke, uobičajeno ističu sljedeće vrijednosti:[28]

  • sloboda — ne samo ljudske slobode, nego i sloboda od diskriminacije, sloboda demokratskog sudjelovanja i sloboda od zavisnosti, ekstremnog siromaštva, straha i zlouporabe političke, ekonomske i druge moći i položaja;
  • jednakost — ne samo pred zakonom, nego i jednake šanse i mogućnosti za sve ljude u raznim oblastima života, bez obzira na identitetske različitosti, uključujući i one osobe sa poteškoćama bilo koje vrste;
  • solidarnost — pokazivanje razumijevanja i saosjećanja prema osobama koje su žrtve nekog oblika diskriminacije, nepravde, neravnopravnosti ili nezgodnog sticaja okolnosti, te osobna spremnost zajedničkog djelovanja sa drugima na pronalaženju načina za umanjivanje i sprječavanje takvih pojava. Ovo načelo podrazumijeva i razvijanje institucionalnih oblika solidarnosti, te internacionalne solidarnosti.
 
Klement Atli, umjereni ljevičar i premijer Velike Britanije (1945-1951)
 
Vili Brant, umjereni ljevičar i kancelar Nemačke (1969-1974)
 
Ulof Palme, umjereni ljevičar i premijer Švedske (1969-1976 i 1982-1986)
 
Helen Klark, umjerena ljevičarka i premijerka Novog Zelanda (1999-2008)

Lijevi centar se opire svakom obliku autoritarizma i jednopartizma.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36] Stoga, lijevi centar se opire konceptima jednopartijske vladavine takozvanih komunističkih partija 20. stoljeća.[37][38][39]

Popis političkih stranaka lijevog centra i umjerene ljeviceUredi

Popis političara lijevog centra i umjerene ljeviceUredi

PovezanoUredi

IzvoriUredi

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Vanjske vezeUredi