Friedrich Solmsen

Friedrich Solmsen
Rođenje 4. februar 1904. (1904-02-04)
Bonn, Nemačko carstvo
Smrt 30. januar 1989. (dob: 84)
Chapel Hill, North Carolina, SAD
Državljanstvo SAD
Polje Klasična filologija
Institucija Cornell University, University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Alma mater Humboldtov univerzitet u Berlinu
Akademski mentor Werner Jaeger

Friedrich W. Solmsen (4. februar 1904 – 30. januar 1989) bio je američki klasični filolog nemačkog porekla. Objavio je skoro 150 knjiga, monografija, članaka i prikaza, počev od 1930-ih, pa sve do 1980-ih godina.[1] Solmsenov rad karakteriše pre svega zanimanje za historiju ideja.[2] Bio je uticajan naučnik na području grčke tragedije, posebno zahvaljujući svom radu na Eshilu, kao i na području filozofije fizikalnog sveta i njegovog odnosa s duhovnim, naročito u Platonovoj i Aristotelovoj filozofiji.

Život i naučna karijeraUredi

Friedrich Solmsen, koga su bliski prijatelji ponekad zvali "Fritz", rođen je i odrastao u Nemačkoj. Bio je jedan od članova grupe "Graeca", odnosno grupe mladih filologa koju je okupio Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff i koja se sastajala u kući znamenitog naučnika kako bi čitala grčke tekstove i raspravljala o njima, s ciljem emendacije teksta. U eseju koji je napisao 50 godina kasnije Solmsen se prisetio tih godina i legendarnog filologa u jednom nacrtu biografije koja kombinuje političko-historijsku perspektivu, sociologiju akademskih institucija i lična zapažanja. "Ne sećam se da se Wilamowitz ikada glasno smejao", zapisao je u jednoj fusnoti. "Niti se ikada kezio".[3] Solmsenu su predavali i Eduard Norden, Otto Regenbogen i Werner Jaeger, a njima trojici i Wilamowitzu posvetio je prvi tom svojih sabranih spisa.[4] Bio je jedan od poslednjih ljudi kojima je već teško bolesni Wilamowitz uputio pismo.[5]

Solmsenova doktorska disertacija o Aristotelovoj logici i retorici objavljena je 1928. Polovinom tridesetih godina otišao je iz Nemačke kako bi pobegao od narastajućeg nacizma,[6] te je, nakon kraćeg boravka u Velikoj Britaniji, stigao u Sjedinjene Države, gde je predavao na koledžu Olivet u Michiganu (1937–1940). Zatim je prešao na Cornellov univerzitet,[7] gde je ostao 22 godine. Među ostalim predavanjima, držao je kurs "Temelji zapadne misli", koji je obrađivao historiju filozofskih, naučnih i religijskih ideja u antičkoj Grčkoj, helenističkom razdoblju i starom Rimu.[2]

Godine 1962. postao je profesor na Wisconsinskom univerzitetu u Madisonu.[8] Godine 1972. dobio je Goodwinovu nagradu za zasluge (Goodwin Award of Merit), koju mu je dodelilo Američko filološko društvo za izuzetan doprinos klasičnoj filologiji, odnosno za njegovo izdanje Hesiodovih dela, Teogonije, Poslova i dana i Štita Heraklova, koja su objavljena u ediciji Oksfordskih klasičnih tekstova.[9]

Solmsen se penzionisao 1974.[8] Nakon penzinisanja živeo je u Chapel Hillu u Severnoj Karolini i nastavio da piše i objavljuje nove radove. Povremeno je držao predavanja na Univerzitetu u Severnoj Karolini, držao seminare u organizaciji Nacionalne zadužbine za humanističke nauke te predavao i Pindaru i Plotinu.[10] Umro je u dobi od 84 godine i veći deo svoje biblioteke zaveštao univerzitetu. Iza sebe je ostavio suprugu, koja se zvala Lieselotte.[11] Kolege su mu odale počast kao "jednom od poslednjih velikana nemačke tradicije klasičnog humanizma".[10]

DelaUredi

U svom eseju o Wilamowitzu, Solmsen se osvrnuo na klasične nauke kao naučnu disciplinu i intelektualnu aktivnost u okviru jednog šireg historijskog konteksta. "Generacija koja pripada vremenu nakon prvog svetkog rata, za koju je vrednost klasičnih studija postala problematična", zapisao je", nije [od Wilamowitza] dobila odgovor na svoje pitanje šta je antičku civilizaciju učinilo tako posebnom i vrednom intenzivnog proučavanja", dodajući da Wilamowitz "nije shvatio potrebu da te studije opravda generaciji kojoj je kontinuitet jedne tradicije koja seže do Goetheovog vremena bio oslabljen (premda ne i sasvim prekinut) i čije su perspektive još uvek bile u nastajanju; mnogi su, zapravo, svesno tražili neku novu orijentaciju".[12]

Ovde se daje bibilografija, uređena prema temi, a u okviru svake teme, prema hronologiji, s ciljem da se pokuša pružiti slika širokog dijapazona Solmsenovog doprinosa klasičnoj filologiji, no ona ni u kojem slučaju nije potpuna. Izostavljena je većina članaka na nemačkom, prikazi,[13] i beleške (tj. članci kraći od tri stranice). Većina članaka sabrana je u njegovom trotomnom delu Kleine Schriften (Hildesheim 1968–1982).

Hesiod i HomerUredi

  • "The Gift of Speech in Homer and Hesiod." Transactions of the American Philological Association 85 (1954) 1–15.
  • "Hesiodic Motifs in Plato." In Hésiode et son influence: six exposées et discussions, edited by Kurt von Fritz (Geneva: Fondation Hardt, 1962) 171–211.
  • "The Days of the Works and Days." Transactions of the American Philological Association 94 (1963) 293–320.
  • "Ilias XVIII, 535–540." Hermes 93 (1965) 1–6.
  • "The Sacrifice of Agamemnon's Daughter in Hesiod's Ehoeae." American Journal of Philology 102 (1981) 353–358.
  • "The Earliest Stages in the History of Hesiod's Text." Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 86 (1982) 1–31.
  • "The Two Near Eastern Sources of Hesiod." Hermes 117 (1989) 413–422.

Grčka tragedijaUredi

  • Euripides' Ion im Vergleich mit anderen Tragödien. Berlin 1934.
  • "Ὄνομα and πρᾶγμα in Euripides' Helen." Classical Review 48 (1934) 119–121.
  • "The Erinys in Aischylos' Septem." Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 68 (1937) 197–211.
  • "Strata of Greek Religion in Aeschylus." Harvard Theological Review 40 (1947) 211–226.
  • Hesiod and Aeschylus.
  • "'Bad Shame' and Related Problems in Phaedra's Speech (Eur. Hipp. 380–388)." Hermes 101 (1973) 420–425. O jednom odeljku u Euripidovom Hipolitu.
  • "Φρήν, καρδία, ψυχή in Greek tragedy." In Greek Poetry and Philosophy: Studies in Honour of Leonard Woodbury. Edited by Douglas E. Gerber. Scholars Press, 1984, pp. 265–274.
  • "Ἀλλ᾽ εἰδέναι χρὴ δρῶσαν: The Meaning of Sophocles' Trachiniai 588-93." American Journal of Philology 106 (1985) 490–496.

PlatonUredi

  • "The Background of Plato's Theology." Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 67 (1936) 208–218. On Book 10 of Plato's Laws.
  • "Plato and the Unity of Science." Philosophical Review 49 (1940) 566–571.
  • Plato's Theology. Cornell University Press, 1942. Prikazao William C. Greene in Classical Philology 40 (1945) 128–133.
  • "On Plato's Account of Respiration." Studi italiani di filologia classica 27–28 (1956) 544–548.
  • "Platonic Influences in the Formation of Aristotle's Physical System." In Aristotle and Plato in the Mid-Fourth Century. Papers of the Symposium Aristotelicum Held at Oxford in August 1957. Edited by Ingemar During and G.E.L. Owen. Göteborg 1960, pp. 213–235.
  • "Hesiodic Motifs in Plato."
  • "Republic III,389b2–d6: Plato's Draft and the Editor's Mistake." Philologus 109 (1965) 182–185.
  • Review of Preface to Plato by Eric A. Havelock (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1963). In American Journal of Philology 87 (1966) 99–105.
  • "Plato's First Mover in the Eighth Book of Aristotle's Physics." Philomathes: Studies and Essays in the Humanities in Memory of Philip Merlan. Edited by Robert B. Palmer and Robert Hamerton-Kelly. The Hague: Nijhoff, 1971, pp. 171–182.
  • "Plato and Science." In Interpretations of Plato: A Swarthmore Symposium. Edited by Helen F. North. E. J. Brill, 1977.
  • "Platonic Values in Aristotle's Science." Journal of the History of Ideas 39 (1978) 3–23.
  • "Some Passages in Plato's Laws IV and V." Illinois Classical Studies 5 (1980) 44–48.
  • "The Academic and the Alexandrian editions of Plato's Works." Illinois Classical Studies 6 (1981) 102–111.
  • "Plato and the Concept of the Soul (Psyche): Some Historical Perspectives." Journal of the History of Ideas 44 (1983) 355–367.

AristotelUredi

  • Die aristotelische Methodenlehre und die spätplatonische Akademie, dissertation. Berlin 1928. Revised and published as Die Entwicklung der aristotelischen Logik und Rhetorik in 1975 and again in 2001.
  • "The Origins and Methods of Aristotle's Poetics." Classical Quarterly 29 (1935) 192–201.
  • "The Aristotelian Tradition in Ancient Rhetoric." American Journal of Philology 62 (1941) 35–50 and 169–190.
  • "Boethius and the History of the Organon." American Journal of Philology 65 (1944) 69–74.
  • "Antecedents of Aristotle's Psychology and Scale of Beings." American Journal of Philology 76 (1955) 148–164.
  • "Aristotle and Prime Matter: A Reply to H. R. King." Journal of the History of Ideas 19 (1958) 243–252.
  • "Misplaced Passages at the End of Aristotle's Physics." American Journal of Philology 82 (1961) 270–282.
  • "Leisure and Play in Aristotle's Ideal State." Rheinisches Museum 107 (1964) 193–220.
  • Review of Aristotle and the Problem of Value by Whitney J. Oates (Princeton University Press, 1963). In Journal of Philosophy 62 (1965) 298–303.
  • Ursprünge und Methoden der aristotelischen Poetik. Darmstadt 1968.
  • "Dialectic without the Forms." In Aristotle on Dialectic: The Topics. Proceedings of the Third Symposium Aristotelicum. Edited by G. E. L. Owen. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968, str. 49–68.
  • "The Fishes of Lesbos and Their Alleged Significance for the Development of Aristotle." Hermes 106 (1978) 467–484.
  • "Citations in Their Bearing on the Origin of 'Aristotle' Meteorologica IV." Hermes 113 (1985) 448–459.

Empedokle, Epikur, LukrecijeUredi

  • Review of T. Lucreti Cari, De rerum natura, Libri sex, edition and commentary by William Ellery Leonard and Stanley Barney Smith (University of Wisconsin Press, 1942), u: Philosophical Review 53 (1944) 208–211.
  • "Epicurus on the Growth and Decline of the Cosmos." American Journal of Philology 74 (1953) 34–51.
  • Αἴσθησις in Aristotelian and Epicurean Thought. Amsterdam, 1961. Aisthesis izvorno označava i kognitivna zapažanja i osećanja (npr. radosti i bola); Solmsen istražuje Platonovo ograničavanje tog termina na kognitivna zapažanja, a zatim i kod Aristotela i stoičara; međutim, kod Epikura ta reč označava sposobnost da se ugoda i bol dejstvom atoma u telu.[16]
  • "Ζωρός in Empedocles." Classical Review 17 (1967) 245–246.
  • "A Peculiar Omission in Lucretius' Account of Human Civilization." Philologus 114 (1970) 256–261.
  • "Eternal and Temporary Beings in Empedocles' Physical Poem." Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 57 (1975) 123–145.
  • "Epicurus on Void, Matter and Genesis: Some Historical Observations." Phronesis 22 (1977) 263–281.
  • "Empedocles' Hymn to Apollo." Phronesis 35 (1980) 219–227.
  • "Abdera's Arguments for the Atomic Theory." Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 29 (1988) 59–73.
  • "Lucretius' Strategy in De rerum natura I." Rheinisches Museum 131 (1988) 315–323.

Filozofske i književne temeUredi

  • "Cicero's First Speeches: A Rhetorical Analysis." Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 69 (1938) 542–556.
  • "Some Works of Philostratus the Elder." Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 71 (1940) 556–572.
  • "Eratosthenes as Platonist and Poet." Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 73 (1942) 192–213.
  • "Chaos and Apeiron." Studi italiani di filologia classica 24 (1949) 235–248.
  • Review of Empedocles' Mixture, Eudoxan Astronomy and Aristotle's Connate Pneuma by Harald A. T. Reiche (Amsterdam 1960), in American Journal of Philology 84 (1963) 91–94.
  • "Tissues and the Soul: Philosophical Contributions to Physiology." Philosophical Review 59 (1950) 435–468.
  • "Neglected Evidence for Cicero's De re publica." Museum Helveticum 13 (1956) 38–53.
  • "The Vital Heat, the Inborn Pneuma and the Aether." Journal of Hellenic Studies 77 (1957) 119–123.
  • "Greek Philosophy and the Discovery of the Nerves." Museum Helveticum 18 (1961) 150–167 and 169–197.
  • "Anaximander's Infinite: Traces and Influences." Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie 44 (1962) 109–131.
  • "Anaxagoras B 19 Diels-Kranz." Hermes 91 (1963) 250–251.
  • "Nature as Craftsman in Greek Thought." Journal of the History of Ideas 24 (1963) 473–496.
  • "Thucydides' Treatment of Words and Concepts." Hermes 99 (1971) 385–408.
  • "The Tradition about Zeno of Elea Re-examined." Phronesis 16 (1971) 116–141.
  • Intellectual Experiments of the Greek Enlightenment. Princeton University Press, 1975. U šest poglavlja obrađuju se teme kao što su argumentacija, uveravanje, utopijsko vizionarstvo i reforma, jezičko eksperimentisanje i empirijska psihologija.[17]
  • "Light from Aristotle's Physics on the text of Parmenides B 8 D-K." Phronesis 1977 XXII : 10–12.
  • "Theophrastus and Political Aspects of the Belief in Providence." Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies 19 (1978) 91–98.
  • "Emendations in Cosmological Texts." Rheinisches Museum 124 (1981) 1–18.
  • "Plotinus v,5,3,21 ff.: A Passage on Zeus." Museum Helveticum 43 (1986) 68–73.

Poezija Avgustovog dobaUredi

  • "Horace's First Roman Ode." American Journal of Philology 68 (1947) 337–352.
  • "Three Elegies of Propertius' First Book." Classical Philology 57 (1962) 73–88.
  • "On Propertius I, 7." American Journal of Philology 86 (1965) 77–84.
  • "Catullus' Artistry in C. 68: A Pre-Augustan Subjective Love-Elegy." Monumentum Chiloniense: Studien zur augusteischen Zeit. Kieler Festschrift für Erich Burck zum 70. Geburtstag. Edited by Eckard Lefèvre. Amsterdam 1975, pp. 260–276.

Zagrobni život, mit, religijaUredi

  • Review of The Greeks and the Irrational by E.R. Dodds, in American Journal of Philology 75 (1954) 190–196.
  • Review of Αἰών da Omero ad Aristotele by Enzo Degani (University of Padua, 1961). In American Journal of Philology 84 (1963) 329–332.
  • "Greek Ideas of the Hereafter in Vergil's Roman Epic." "Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society" 92 (1968) 8–14.
  • "Ἀμοιβή in the Recently Discovered 'Orphic' Katabasis." Hermes 96 (1968) 631–632.
  • "The World of the Dead in Book 6 of the Aeneid." Classical Philology 67 (1972) 31–41.
  • "Symphytos Aion (A., Ag. 106)." American Journal of Philology 100 (1979) 477–479. On Aeschylus, Agamemnon, line 106.
  • Isis among the Greeks and Romans. Harvard University Press, 1979.
  • "Achilles on the Islands of the Blessed: Pindar vs. Homer and Hesiod." American Journal of Philology 103 (1982) 19–24.
  • "'Aeneas Founded Rome with Odysseus.'" Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 90 (1986) 93–110.

Hrišćanske temeUredi

  • "The Conclusion of Theodosius' Oration in Prudentius' Contra Symmachum." Philologus 109 (1965) 310–313.
  • "Early Christian Interest in the Theory of Demonstration", u: Romanitas et Christianitas; studia Iano Henrico Waszink. Uredio W. den Boer. Amsterdam 1973, str. 281–291.

LiteraturaUredi

  • "Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84." New York Times (10. februar 1989), nekrolog.
  • Kirkwood, G.M. "Foreword to the Paperback Edition", u: Hesiod and Aeschylus by Friedrich Solmsen. Cornell University Press, 1995, str. ix–xi.
  • Solmsen, Friedrich. Kleine Schriften, 3 vols. Hildesheim, 1968–1982.
  • Solmsen, Friedrich. "Wilamowitz in His Last Ten Years." Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 20 (1979) 89–122.
  • Tabulae. Bilten Odeljenja za klasične nauka, Univerzitet u Severnoj Karolini, jesen 1989, str. iii–iv.
  • Ward, Leo R. My Fifty Years at Notre Dame, chapter 6.

ReferenceUredi

  1. Procenjeno na osnovu podataka iz L'Année philologique dostupnih na internetu, koje uključuju njegove publikacije od 1949. do smrti (pristupljeno 2. avgusta 2008), i iz baze JSTOR, koja se ograničava na akademske časopise koji su njeni članovi, ali uključuje publikacije iz tridesetih i četrdesetih godina 20. veka.
  2. 2,0 2,1 G.M. Kirkwood, "Foreword to the Paperback Edition," u: Friedrich Solmsen, Hesiod and Aeschylus (Cornell University Press, 1995), str. ix.
  3. Friedrich Solmsen, "Wilamowitz in His Last Ten Years," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 20 (1979), str. 89 i 92.
  4. Kleine Schriften, vol. 1 (Hildesheim 1968), strana s posvetom (nije numerisana).
  5. William A. Calder III, "Seventeen Letters of Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff to Eduard Fraenkel," Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 81 (1977), str. 294, nap. 119.
  6. Leo R. Ward, My Fifty Years at Notre Dame, chapter 6.
  7. "Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," New York Times (10. februar 1989), nekrolog.
  8. 8,0 8,1 "Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," New York Times (10. februar 1989), nekrolog.
  9. Hesiodi Theogonia; Opera et dies; Scutum (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1970); 2. izd. 1983; 3. izd. 1990; Goodwin Award of Merit 1951–2007 popis dobitnika.
  10. 10,0 10,1 Tabulae, bilten Odeljenja za klasične nauke Univerziteta u Severnoj Karolini, jesen 1989, str. iii.
  11. "Friedrich Solmsen, Professor, 84," New York Times (10. februar 1989), nekrolog. Lieselotte Solmsen je 1940-ih godina objavila dva članka o Herodotu, Govori u Herodotom prikazu jonskog ustanka ("Speeches in Herodotus' Account of the Ionic Revolt," American Journal of Philology 64, 1943, str. 194–207) i Govori u Herodotovom prikazu bitke kod Plateje ("Speeches in Herodotus' Account of the Battle of Plataea," Classical Philology 39, 1944, str. 241–253.
  12. Friedrich Solmsen, "Wilamowitz in His Last Ten Years," Greek, Roman and Byzantine Studies 20 (1979), str. 94 i 101.
  13. Solmsenovi su prikazi obično kratki i konkretni; retko je pisao eseje u kojima bi razrađivao svoje teze uporedo s onima iznesenim u delu koje prikazuje, kako su to činili Ronald Syme ili Arnaldo Momigliano. Prikazi koji su ovde navedeni izabrani su zbog značaja prikazanog dela ili zbog dubine s kojom je Solmsen pristupio obradi tih dela.
  14. "Logički manjkavo", presudio je A. D. Fitton-Brown, primećujući, pak, da je psihološki pristup dobro došao; prikaz u Classical Review 19 (1969) 100–101.
  15. Gregory Vlastos, review, Isis 54 (1963) 151–152.
  16. Solmsenovu tezu sumira i pokušava oboriti G.B. Kerford, "Two Studies in Greek Philosophy" (prikaz), Classical Review 13 (1963) 192–192.
  17. Prikazao G.J. de Vries, koji to nije smatrao Solmsenovim najboljim delom, u: Mnemosyne 29 (1976) 445–446.

Vanjske vezeUredi

  • Georgia Mouroutsou, "Friedrich Solmsen: German and Anglo-Saxon Virtue," pohvalna reč na Harmonia, A Forum for the Mediation of Dialogue in Ancient and Modern Academies.